This file provides the preferred walking speeds as a function of distances. First, we give the 'average speed' over the whole distance, from start to stop. Next, we give the 'steady state speed', defined as the average speed over the middle 1.4 m of the trial. We also computed another 'steady state speed, as the average over the middle 0.75 m of each trial. These two estimates gave the same distribution of speeds (see Figure 2C of main manuscript). Each subject did 10 different distances: 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 89 m. The average speeds are reported below for all these 10 distances. The steady state speeds are reported for only 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 m. Each subject did 3 trials for each distance (all randomized order). The preferred speed in each of the 3 trials is given below, in the following comma separated format: Distance, Speed in trial 1, Speed in Trial 2, Speed in Trial 3. Distances are in m and speeds in m/s. --------------------------------------- Subject 1 --------------------------------------- 0.5, 0.42017, 0.44053, 0.39683 1, 0.50125, 0.49505, 0.4329 2, 0.65147, 0.6993, 0.66445 4, 0.69444, 0.75758, 0.80321 6, 0.94787, 0.96154, 0.91047 8, 0.90806, 1.3865, 0.94229 10, 0.98232, 1.0235, 1.0194 12, 1.1121, 1.0187, 1.0899 14, 1.1532, 1.1164, 1.1245 89, 1.2406, 1.29, 1.3248 --------------------------------------- Subject 2 --------------------------------------- 0.5, 0.41322, 0.44643, 0.45455 1, 0.51282, 0.53191, 0.5305 2, 0.67114, 0.73529, 0.76336 4, 0.90909, 0.96386, 1.0582 6, 1.0791, 1.1321, 1.1029 8, 1.1236, 1.1713, 1.084 10, 1.1737, 1.1891, 1.1628 12, 1.1439, 1.2208, 1.1696 14, 1.1653, 1.1967, 1.2422 89, 1.3191, 1.272, 1.2822 --------------------------------------- Subject 3 --------------------------------------- 0.5, 0.19685, 0.28409, 0.33333 1, 0.44053, 0.47281, 0.43384 2, 0.64103, 0.60976, 1.0753 4, 0.82305, 0.82305, 0.83682 6, 0.70175, 0.98039, 0.87977 8, 1.0217, 1.0114, 1.039 10, 1.0977, 1.0929, 1.0341 12, 1.0025, 1.085, 1.1091 14, 1.0671, 1.1067, 1.1364 89, 1.3033, 1.3207, 1.2756 --------------------------------------- Subject 4 --------------------------------------- 0.5, 0.34965, 0.25381, 0.3003 1, 0.46404, 0.47847, 0.51282 2, 0.62893, 0.60976, 0.63898 4, 0.83682, 0.81633, 0.87336 6, 0.88365, 0.88889, 0.88757 8, 1.0554, 1.005, 1.0127 10, 1.0101, 1.0299, 1.0091 12, 1.0239, 1.105, 1.049 14, 1.1354, 1.0886, 1.1382 89, 1.3213, 1.3404, 1.2884 --------------------------------------- Subject 5 --------------------------------------- 0.5, 0.27473, 0.35714, 0.40323 1, 0.41322, 0.44053, 0.48662 2, 0.81301, 0.68259, 0.7326 4, 0.99502, 0.9009, 0.93458 6, 1.0417, 1.0135, 1.0417 8, 1.1696, 1.1252, 1.173 10, 1.1947, 1.1876, 1.1962 12, 1.2295, 1.2565, 1.206 14, 1.2785, 1.2856, 1.2868 89, 1.5103, 1.5162, 1.5374 --------------------------------------- Subject 6 --------------------------------------- 0.5, 0.26042, 0.26316, 0.24038 1, 0.31746, 0.29499, 0.39062 2, 0.69444, 0.6734, 0.62112 4, 0.75901, 0.84746, 0.80483 6, 0.82988, 0.96463, 0.9434 8, 0.97205, 0.99133, 1.0695 10, 0.98717, 1.0373, 0.95057 12, 1.0733, 1.0743, 1.0762 14, 1.1245, 1.1245, 1.0929 89, 1.3088, 1.3665, 1.3921 --------------------------------------- Subject 7 --------------------------------------- 0.5, 0.27933, 0.3125, 0.41152 1, 0.37453, 0.36765, 0.46948 2, 0.55402, 0.62112, 0.55402 4, 0.74349, 0.70547, 0.7874 6, 0.93023, 0.82418, 0.82531 8, 0.96386, 0.89087, 0.94229 10, 0.99602, 0.91324, 0.93721 12, 1.0187, 1.0084, 0.99502 14, 1.1309, 1.0043, 0.97155 89, 1.1772, 1.2439, 1.223 --------------------------------------- Subject 8 --------------------------------------- 0.5, 0.29326, 0.42017, 0.35461 1, 0.42735, 0.4878, 0.35778 2, 0.66007, 0.74349, 0.67797 4, 0.84388, 0.90498, 0.9324 6, 0.98522, 1.0169, 0.97561 8, 1.0681, 1.0114, 1.0444 10, 0.99305, 1.0549, 1.1494 12, 1.086, 1.1268, 1.1225 14, 1.1058, 1.1706, 1.1364 89, 1.2942, 1.376, 1.3994 --------------------------------------- Subject 9 --------------------------------------- 0.5, 0.22727, 0.26455, 0.38168 1, 0.5291, 0.37037, 0.45147 2, 0.68259, 0.70423, 0.63694 4, 0.81967, 0.87146, 0.84926 6, 1, 1.0949, 1.0327 8, 1.0767, 1.023, 1.0363 10, 1.1287, 1.007, 1.0493 12, 1.0979, 1.1321, 1.1605 14, 1.2635, 1.2939, 1.1155 89, 1.2551, 1.3363, 1.3222 --------------------------------------- Subject 10 --------------------------------------- 0.5, 0.38314, 0.3861, 0.37175 1, 0.4902, 0.54054, 0.51282 2, 0.7874, 0.8658, 0.92166 4, 1.1527, 1.1976, 1.2579 6, 1.1215, 1.2474, 1.3605 8, 1.3841, 1.3937, 1.5267 10, 1.3021, 1.4085, 1.5015 12, 1.323, 1.4151, 1.5152 14, 1.3903, 1.5766, 1.5677 89, 1.6399, 1.6685, 1.6555 --------------------------------------- Steady state speeds for 2 m to 14 m, obtained by averaging over middle 1.4 m of each trial --------------------------------------- Subject 1 --------------------------------------- 2, 0.87264, 0.94388, 0.90686 4, 1.1562, 1.0673, 1.1012 6, 1.2967, 1.1562, 1.0432 8, 1.11, 1.119, 1.1467 10, 1.2614, 1.2065, 1.2279 12, 1.2729, 1.2065, 1.1758 14, 1.351, 1.1717, 1.2147 --------------------------------------- Subject 2 --------------------------------------- 2, 1.0673, 0.99107, 1.0202 4, 1.1859, 1.6324, 1.2388 6, 1.2279, 1.3738, 1.309 8, 1.2614, 1.3738, 1.2967 10, 1.25, 1.309, 1.3603 12, 1.2388, 1.2729, 1.2729 14, 1.3374, 1.3374, 1.351 --------------------------------------- Subject 3 --------------------------------------- 2, 0.71154, 0.76236, NaN 4, 0.99107, 0.97028, 0.90686 6, 0.81618, 1.1562, 0.99107 8, 1.1562, 1.1859, 1.2614 10, 1.2614, 1.1467, 1.2065 12, 1.1859, 1.128, 1.2171 14, 1.122, 1.2854, 1.351 --------------------------------------- Subject 4 --------------------------------------- 2, 0.81618, 0.85123, 0.8618 4, 1.1012, 1.0354, 1.11 6, 1.0128, 1.128, 1.0925 8, 1.2847, 1.1961, 1.2065 10, 1.1961, 1.1562, 1.0673 12, 1.1563, 1.2279, 1.1961 14, 1.2491, 1.2147, 1.2374 --------------------------------------- Subject 5 --------------------------------------- 2, 0.93121, 0.925, 0.94388 4, 1.2967, 1.119, 1.2729 6, 1.3214, 1.309, 1.3603 8, 1.4158, 1.3214, 1.3341 10, 1.3603, 1.3603, 1.4304 12, 1.4453, 1.3471, 1.3603 14, 1.4992, 1.4551, 1.4551 --------------------------------------- Subject 6 --------------------------------------- 2, 0.70791, 0.73803, 0.66707 4, 0.9375, 0.9982, 0.9375 6, 0.94388, 1.0756, 1.0432 8, 1.0592, 1.0756, 1.1467 10, 1.0592, 1.0673, 1.0202 12, 1.11, 1.0925, 1.1563 14, 1.302, 1.2525, 1.2067 --------------------------------------- Subject 7 --------------------------------------- 2, 0.6835, 0.74597, 0.66388 4, 0.9375, 0.90097, 0.88942 6, 1.084, 0.87264, 0.96354 8, 1.0128, 1.0432, 0.99107 10, 1.119, 0.95034, 0.95034 12, 1.1012, 1.0354, 1.084 14, 1.2067, 1.0994, 0.9895 --------------------------------------- Subject 8 --------------------------------------- 2, 0.89516, 0.97028, 0.89516 4, 0.96354, 1.119, 1.1562 6, 1.1758, 1.2279, 1.2279 8, 1.2729, 1.166, 1.2388 10, 1.0592, 1.309, 1.3471 12, 1.2847, 1.2388, 1.309 14, 1.178, 1.2369, 1.3372 --------------------------------------- Subject 9 --------------------------------------- 2, 0.73803, 0.9569, 0.88376 4, 1.1373, 1.1373, 1.11 6, 1.3341, 1.3738, 1.2614 8, 1.309, 1.2279, 1.2967 10, 1.25, 1.166, 1.1758 12, 1.2279, 1.2847, 1.3471 14, 1.302, 1.3372, 1.178 --------------------------------------- Subject 10 --------------------------------------- 2, 0.97028, 1.166, 1.2279 4, 1.4919, 1.7344, 1.6717 6, 1.4158, 1.6518, 1.8019 8, 1.8257, 1.7344, 1.8019 10, 1.6134, 1.6518, 1.7344 12, 1.4304, 1.7344, 1.7344 14, 1.5223, 1.5706, 1.6771 --------------------------------------- Steady state walking speed obtained as average over middle 0.75 m --------------------------------------- Subject 1 --------------------------------------- 2,0.88082,0.87058,0.87058 4,1.1344,0.91305,1.0256 6,1.2274,1.1518,1.0399 8,1.1175,1.0545,1.1175 10,1.1698,1.1698,1.0696 12,1.1884,1.1518,1.1175 --------------------------------------- Subject 2 --------------------------------------- 2,0.98513,0.91305,0.98513 4,1.1518,1.2076,1.2909 6,1.1884,1.2909,1.3135 8,1.2274,1.3135,1.269 10,1.1518,1.2478,1.269 12,1.269,1.2274,1.2909 --------------------------------------- Subject 3 --------------------------------------- 2,0.8508,0.84124,NaN 4,0.97234,0.99827,0.90205 6,0.84124,1.1344,0.95987 8,1.2478,1.1698,1.3613 10,1.1884,0.77186,1.269 12,1.1884,1.1884,1.2274 --------------------------------------- Subject 4 --------------------------------------- 2,0.68064,0.83189,0.92432 4,1.0118,1.101,1.0399 6,1.0545,1.0696,1.0696 8,1.3135,1.1175,1.2909 10,1.2478,1.101,1.2478 12,1.1175,1.2478,1.1344 --------------------------------------- Subject 5 --------------------------------------- 2,0.91305,0.92432,1.0256 4,1.2076,1.1884,1.2478 6,1.4398,1.1884,1.2909 8,1.528,1.2909,1.2909 10,1.2909,1.5598,1.3865 12,1.3135,1.2909,1.3613 --------------------------------------- Subject 6 --------------------------------------- 2,0.8508,0.7487,0.79649 4,1.0118,1.0696,1.0118 6,1.0851,1.2076,1.1884 8,1.1884,1.0851,1.2909 10,1.1698,1.1884,1.101 12,1.2274,1.2274,1.337 --------------------------------------- Subject 7 --------------------------------------- 2,0.77186,0.83189,0.73402 4,1.0256,0.95987,0.93587 6,1.1884,0.92432,1.0118 8,1.1344,1.1518,1.101 10,1.1698,1.0118,1.0696 12,1.1175,1.1698,1.1698 --------------------------------------- Subject 8 --------------------------------------- 2,0.86057,0.93588,0.94772 4,1.0118,1.0545,1.0696 6,1.101,1.2076,1.1884 8,1.269,1.1698,1.2076 10,1.0851,1.1884,1.337 12,1.2478,1.2076,1.269 --------------------------------------- Subject 9 --------------------------------------- 2,0.71305,0.91305,0.83189 4,1.0851,1.0851,0.94772 6,1.2478,1.3135,1.1175 8,1.2076,1.1344,1.2274 10,1.2274,1.1344,1.1698 12,1.1344,1.2909,1.2478 --------------------------------------- Subject 10 --------------------------------------- 2,0.93588,1.101,1.0696 4,1.4126,1.6276,1.5598 6,1.2909,1.5598,1.7412 8,1.6276,1.593,1.593 10,1.4974,1.468,1.7016 12,1.4126,1.4974,1.593 --------------------------------------- Subject properties --------------------------------------- Subject Age Height cm Weight kg --------------------------------------- 1 21 162.6 71.8 2 28 166.4 77.8 3 25 175.25 68 4 26 182.9 78.9 5 28 164 58.9 6 25 172 70 7 27 152.4 49.9 8 25 183 88 9 26 152.4 64 10 24 183 93.4 ---------------------------------------