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dc.contributor.author Swanson, Alexandra B.
dc.contributor.author Kosmala, Margaret
dc.contributor.author Lintott, Chris J.
dc.contributor.author Simpson, Robert J.
dc.contributor.author Smith, Arfon
dc.contributor.author Packer, Craig
dc.coverage.spatial Serengeti National Park
dc.coverage.spatial Tanzania
dc.coverage.spatial Serengeti-Mara Ecosystem
dc.date.accessioned 2015-06-05T17:24:00Z
dc.date.available 2015-06-05T17:24:00Z
dc.date.issued 2015-06-09
dc.identifier doi:10.5061/dryad.5pt92
dc.identifier.citation Swanson AB, Kosmala M, Lintott CJ, Simpson RJ, Smith A, Packer C (2015) Snapshot Serengeti, high-frequency annotated camera trap images of 40 mammalian species in an African savanna. Scientific Data 2: 150026.
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10255/dryad.76007
dc.description Camera traps can be used to address large-scale questions in community ecology by providing systematic data on an array of wide-ranging species. We deployed 225 camera traps across 1,125 km2 in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, to evaluate spatial and temporal inter-species dynamics. The cameras have operated continuously since 2010 and had accumulated 99,241 camera-trap days and produced 1.2 million sets of pictures by 2013. Members of the general public classified the images via the citizen-science website www.snapshotserengeti.org. Multiple users viewed each image and recorded the species, number of individuals, associated behaviours, and presence of young. Over 28,000 registered users contributed 10.8 million classifications. We applied a simple algorithm to aggregate these individual classifications into a final ‘consensus’ dataset, yielding a final classification for each image and a measure of agreement among individual answers. The consensus classifications and raw imagery provide an unparalleled opportunity to investigate multi-species dynamics in an intact ecosystem and a valuable resource for machine-learning and computer-vision research.
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.5pt92/1
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.5pt92/6
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.5pt92/7
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.5pt92/8
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.5pt92/9
dc.relation.isreferencedby doi:10.1038/sdata.2015.26
dc.relation.isreferencedby PMID:26097743
dc.subject camera traps
dc.subject ecology
dc.subject remote monitoring
dc.subject citizen science
dc.subject Snapshot Serengeti
dc.title Data from: Snapshot Serengeti, high-frequency annotated camera trap images of 40 mammalian species in an African savanna
dc.type Article
dwc.ScientificName Connochaetes taurinus
dwc.ScientificName Acinonyx jubatus
dwc.ScientificName Aepyceros melampus
dwc.ScientificName Alcelaphus buselaphus
dwc.ScientificName Ardeotis kori
dwc.ScientificName Canis
dwc.ScientificName Caracal caracal
dwc.ScientificName Cercopithecus aethiops
dwc.ScientificName Civettictis civetta
dwc.ScientificName Crocuta crocuta
dwc.ScientificName Damaliscus lunatus
dwc.ScientificName Diceros bicornis
dwc.ScientificName Equus burchelli
dwc.ScientificName Felis lybica
dwc.ScientificName Felis serval
dwc.ScientificName Gazella granti
dwc.ScientificName Gazella thomsonii
dwc.ScientificName Genetta genetta
dwc.ScientificName Giraffa camelopardus
dwc.ScientificName Herpestes
dwc.ScientificName Hippopotamus amphibius
dwc.ScientificName Hyaena hyaena
dwc.ScientificName Hystrix cristata
dwc.ScientificName Ichneumia
dwc.ScientificName Ictonyx striatus
dwc.ScientificName Kobus ellipsiprymnus
dwc.ScientificName Lepus capensis
dwc.ScientificName Loxodonta africana
dwc.ScientificName Madoqua kirkii
dwc.ScientificName Mellivora capensis
dwc.ScientificName Numidia meleagris
dwc.ScientificName Orycteropus afer
dwc.ScientificName Otocyon megalotis
dwc.ScientificName Panthera leo
dwc.ScientificName Panthera pardus
dwc.ScientificName Papio anubis
dwc.ScientificName Phacochoerus africanus
dwc.ScientificName Prosteles cristata
dwc.ScientificName Reptilia
dwc.ScientificName Rodentia
dwc.ScientificName Sagittarius serpentarius
dwc.ScientificName Struthio camelus
dwc.ScientificName Syncerus caffer
dwc.ScientificName Tragelaphus oryx
dwc.ScientificName Tragelaphus scriptus
prism.publicationName Scientific Data

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Content in the Dryad Digital Repository is offered "as is." By downloading files, you agree to the Dryad Terms of Service. To the extent possible under law, the authors have waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to this data. CC0 (opens a new window) Open Data (opens a new window)

Title Gold Standard Data
Downloaded 248 times
Description Expert classifications for 4,149 image sets. Unlike Snapshot Serengeti volunteers, experts were allowed to indicate if a capture event was impossible to identify. Fields are as follows: CaptureEventID: Same indicator as in the raw and reduced classification data; NumSpecies: The number of species in this capture event; Species: One of the 48 possibilities or “impossible"; Count: Number of individuals, estimated as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11-50 or 51+.
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Title Operation Dates
Downloaded 87 times
Description The dates that each camera was active and functioning properly, extracted from the image EXIF data as the first and last dates of valid photographs on a given SD card. Valid photographs are defined as those taken while the camera was secured on the tree pointing outwards (in contrast to photos taken after a camera was torn down and facing the ground).
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Title Consensus classifications and metadata
Downloaded 503 times
Description We applied the plurality algorithm (described in the manuscript) to the raw classification data to produce a single classification per capture event, accompanied by measures of uncertainty and difficulty. Each species classified in a single capture event receives its own record and species-specific measures of uncertainty. Metadata (data/time & location) are included to facilitate ecological analyses. This dataset excludes all images retired as “blank.”
Download consensus_data.csv (41.89 Mb)
Download README.docx (103.4 Kb)
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Title Images
Downloaded 507 times
Description URL information for retrieving each image; 1 record per image. All images in this data descriptor can be accessed at https://snapshotserengeti.s3.msi.umn.edu/ by appending the URL_Info field. For example, appending the value ‘S1/B04/B04_R1/S1_B04_R1_PICT0012.JPG’ yields the full URL: https://snapshotserengeti.s3.msi.umn.edu/S1/B04/B04_R1/S1_B04_R1_PICT0012.JPG. Pasting this value into a browser will display the image in the browser.
Download all_images.csv (167.1 Mb)
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Title Raw classification data
Downloaded 722 times
Description Raw classification dataset; 1 record per unique user, capture event, and species. Includes images retired as “Blank” and “Blank_consensus.”
Download README.docx (88.08 Kb)
Download raw_data_for_dryad.csv.zip (310.5 Mb)
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