Data from: Nectar sugar composition of European Caryophylloideae (Caryophyllaceae) in relation to flower length, pollination biology and phylogeny

Witt T, Jürgens A, Gottsberger G

Date Published: July 10, 2013



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Title Nexus file of Caryophylloideae
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Description Nexus file of the phylogenetic relationships among the investigated Caryophylloideae. Our analyses were based on an unresolved phylogeny constructed using published molecular phylogenies and taxonomic groupings. The file was used in MESQUITE for further analyses.
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Title Figure 1 - model (as MS powerpoint file)
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Description Figure 1. Factors that might affect evaporation of water from nectar. (A) Flower nectar depth (nectar is hidden in long-tubed flowers), (B) hydrolyis of sucrose by invertase into hexoses (increase in osmolality), (C) Relation between activity time of flowers (diurnal vs. nocturnal) and temperature (higher during the day) and humidity (higher during the night), (D) features of the anthophore (an elongated internodium above the calyx found in some Caryophylloideae) like its length and hairs. Note: While for hypotheses (A) and (B) evidence can be found in the literature (see text), (C & D) has been tested in this study.
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Title Figure 2 - flower morphology (as Ms powerpoint file)
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Description Figure 2. Floral features in Silene: A. Half-drawing of a hypothetical female Silene flower (with sterile anthers and nectar along the anthophore) illustrating where nectar is located and how flower structure (here the protruding corona scales) may affect the functional flower length for flower visiting insects. B. Silene colorata; showing how the petal claws and corona scales may increase the functional flower length. C. Anthophore of Silene dichotoma with nectar.
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Title Figure 3 - phylogeny (CorelDRAW file)
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Description Figure 3. Phylogenetic distribution of nectar sugar composition, flower tube length and pollination modes in 78 Caryophylloideae. Nectar sugar composition according to the classification system of Baker & Baker (1983); Flower tube length data (gray box; according to Jürgens (2006) and this study. Pollination modes: blue = day-flowering, black = night-flowering, white = self-pollination.
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Title Figure 4 - correlation (MS powerpoint file)
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Description Figure 4. Correlation between functional flower tube length [mm], as the distance from the bottom of the calyx to the end of the calyx tube, or the petal claws, or the corona scales (which ever is extending functional tube length the most), and median amount of sucrose (%) in 78 Caryophylloideae in relation to pollination system (A), and phylogeny (B) (Spearman (all species) rS = 0.542, p < 0.05; Spearman (nocturnal) rS = 0.39, p < 0.05; Spearman (diurnal) rS = 0.84, p < 0.05); Spearman (self-pollinated) rS = 0.31, ns). Dianthus glacialis 1* (mainly selfing), data from Erhardt & Jäggi (1995); Dianthus gratianopolitanus 2* (intermediate between butterfly and moth pollination), data from Erhardt (1990).
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Title Appendix 1-6
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Description Appendix 1: Origin of plants sampled for analysis of nectar sugar composition. Vouchers have been deposited in the herbaria of the Universities of Ulm and/or Bayreuth. Appendix 2 (Data from Jürgens et al., 2002). Pollination mode of Dianthus, Saponaria, Vaccaria, Agrostemma and Silene species based on information from the literature. Appendix 3 (Data from Witt, 2003). Average reproductive success of bagged hermaphrodite flowers of 66 Caryophylloideae species sorted by fruit set, seed set per fruit, and seed set of all bagged flowers. Appendix 4. Flower tube length, anthophore length, hair length and hair density on anthophores of 78 Caryophylloideae. Appendix 5 – SEM of the anthophore region of selected Caryophylloideae. Appendix 6. Species of which a few samples contained traces of possibly other sugars in addition to the main nectar sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose). Reference list for Appendix.
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When using this data, please cite the original publication:

Witt T, Jürgens A, Gottsberger G (2013) Nectar sugar composition of European Caryophylloideae (Caryophyllaceae) in relation to flower length, pollination biology and phylogeny. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26(10): 2244–2259.

Additionally, please cite the Dryad data package:

Witt T, Jürgens A, Gottsberger G (2013) Data from: Nectar sugar composition of European Caryophylloideae (Caryophyllaceae) in relation to flower length, pollination biology and phylogeny. Dryad Digital Repository.
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