Data from: Potential application of the Oryza sativa monodehydroascorbate reductase gene (OsMDHAR) to improve the stress tolerance and fermentative capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Kim I, Kim Y, Kim Y, Park A, Kim H, Lee J, Yoon H

Date Published: November 4, 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.9bv73

 

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Title Fig1
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Description Fig 1. Construction of an OsMDHAR-expressing yeast vector and the stress response of OsMDHAR-expressing yeast to hydrogen peroxide. (A) Schematic diagram of the p426GPD::OsMDHAR construct. The OsMDHAR gene (approximately 1.5 kbp) was subcloned to generate the p426GPD::OsMDHAR construct with OsMDHAR under the control of the constitutive GPD promoter. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR (B), immunoblotting (C), and an enzymatic assay (D) were performed to examine whether OsMDHAR is expressed in this yeast strain. PDA1 and tubulin (Tub) were used as housekeeping controls for RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. The molecular size of the PCR product and molecular weight of the detected band were approximately 494 bp and 47 kDa, respectively. Stress tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was evaluated by cell survival, growth kinetics, and spotting assays. (E) To monitor cell viability, yeast cells precultured in YPD medium were inoculated into fresh YPD medium and exposed to different concentrations of H2O2 for 16 h at 28°C. Then, the optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was measured. Circles, cells transformed with p426GPD-OsMDHAR (TC cells); squares, wild-type (WT) cells transformed with an empty vector. (F) For the growth kinetics assay, precultured yeast cells were inoculated into YPD medium containing 5 mM H2O2, and the OD600 was measured at 2-h intervals for 36 h. A streaking assay was also performed, in which mid-log phase yeast cells (OD600 ≈ 2.0) were streaked onto YPD agar plates supplemented with 5 mM H2O2. WT (squares) and TC (circles) cells in the absence of 5 mM H2O2; WT (upward triangles) and TC (diamonds) cells in the presence of 5 mM H2O2. (G) Mid-log phase yeast cells were exposed to 20 mM H2O2 for 1 h with shaking, and serially diluted with YPD medium. A 5-µL aliquot of each dilution was spotted onto YPD agar plates.
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Title Fig2
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Description Fig 2. Analyses of cell rescue proteins, redox state, and protein oxidation under oxidative conditions. (A) Expression changes in antioxidant and metabolic enzymes in mid-log phase yeast cells exposed to 20 mM H2O2 for 1 h with shaking. Tubulin (Tub) was used as a loading control. (B) Hydroperoxide levels in TC cells in the absence (red bar) and presence (green bar) of 20 mM H2O2 were assessed using FOX reagent and were calculated relative to that in WT cells grown under normal conditions, which was set to 100%. (C) Mid-log phase yeast were exposed to 20 mM H2O2 for 1 h at 28°C with shaking. Redox state was analyzed by measuring DCFHDA oxidation as an indicator of cytosolic ROS. (D) Sensitivity of mutants (sod1Δ, tsa1Δ, por1Δ, and por2Δ) to oxidative stress. Yeast cells (OD600 ≈ 1.0) were exposed to 10 mM H2O2 for 1 h at 28°C with shaking, serially diluted with YPD medium, spotted onto YPD agar plates, and incubated for 2–3 days. (E) Expression changes in molecular chaperones in mid-log phase yeast cells exposed to 20 mM H2O2 for 1 h with shaking. Tubulin (Tub) was used as a loading control. (F) Protein carbonylation in yeast cells exposed to 20 mM H2O2 for 1 h was calculated relative to that in WT cells under normal conditions, which was set to 100%. Red bar, normal conditions; green bar, H2O2 treatment; WT, yeast cells with an empty vector; TC, OsMDHAR-expressing yeast cells; N, normal conditions; S, H2O2 treatment.
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Title Fig3
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Description Fig 3. Stress response related to ascorbate (AsA)-like molecules. (A) AsA-like content in yeast cells exposed to 20 mM H2O2 for 1 h was analyzed and is shown as nmol per mg protein. The ratio shown is that of the reduced form to oxidized form. (B) ARA2 expression was evaluated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. PDA1 was used as a control. (C) Oxidative stress response of yeast cells in the absence and presence of ARA2. Mid-log phase cells were serially diluted, and 5 µL of the diluted solutions were spotted onto YPD agar plates containing 4 mM H2O2 (upper panels). Mid-log phase cells were treated with 20 mM H2O2 for 1 h with shaking, diluted with YPD medium, and spotted onto YPD agar plates. The plates were incubated for 2–3 days and photographed. (D) Stress sensitivity of ara2Δ yeast cells, in which the erythroascorbate (EAA) biosynthesis gene was deleted. Yeast cells (A600 ≈ 1.0) were exposed to 10 mM H2O2 for 1 h at 28°C with shaking, serially diluted with YPD medium, spotted onto YPD agar plates, and incubated for 2–3 days. (E) The redox state of ara2Δ yeast cells under oxidative conditions. Yeast cells (OD600 ≈ 1.0) were exposed to 10 mM H2O2 for 1 h after DCFHDA and DHAR 123 treatment for 30 min and washed twice with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Probe intensity was observed by fluorescence microscopy. BY, wild-type cells without an empty vector; ara2Δ, cells with a deletion of the EAA biosynthetic gene ARA2; WT, wild-type yeast cells with an empty vector; TC, yeast cells with p426GPD::OsMDHAR; WA, ara2Δ yeast cells with an empty vector; TA, ara2Δ yeast cells with p426GPD::OsMDHAR; N, normal conditions; S, in the presence of H2O2.
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Title Fig4
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Description Fig 4. Fermentative capacity and the survival of OsMDHAR-expressing yeast cells during batch fermentation. (A) Fermentative capacity was analyzed by measuring the alcohol (AC) and residual glucose (RG) concentrations in YG medium after fermentation for 72 h at 30°C. Upward triangles, AC of WT cells; circles, AC of TC cells; squares, RG of WT cells; diamonds, RG of TC cells. (B) Time-dependent OsMDHAR expression during batch fermentation was evaluated by western blotting. Tubulin (Tub) was used as a loading control. (C) Growth kinetics during fermentation was assessed by measuring the OD600 at 2-h intervals for the indicated time. Squares, WT cells; circles, TC cells. (D) Cell viability during fermentation at 30°C was assessed by a spotting assay. Cells were harvested after 24 h (upper panel), 48 h (middle panel), and 72 h (lower panel) of fermentation and serially diluted to 10−9. A 5-µL aliquot of each diluted solution was spotted onto YPD agar plates. After incubation for 3 days, the plates were photographed. (E) Stress response to ethanol. Mid-log phase yeast cells (OD600 ≈ 2.0) were exposed to different concentrations of ethanol (0, 15%, and 20%) for 1 h, serially diluted, and spotted onto YPD agar plates. WT, yeast cells with an empty vector; TC, OsMDHAR-expressing yeast cells.
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Title S1_Fig
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Description SI Fig. Stress sensitivity and redox state of por1△ yeast cells under oxidative stress. (A) Growth kinetics was observed in YPD medium containing 3.5 mM H2O2 by monitoring optical density at 600 nm at 2-h intervals for 32 h. Square, BY cells; circle, por1Δ cells. (B) Cell survival by streaking (upper panel) and spotting (lower panel) assays in both BY and por1Δ cells. For streaking assay, yeast cells were cultured until reaching early log-phase (A600 ≈ 1.0) and streaked onto YPD agar plates supplemented with 3.5 mM H2O2. For spotting assay, yeast cells (A600 ≈ 1.0) were exposed to 10 mM H2O2 for 1 h at 28ºC with shaking, serially diluted to 10−4 with YPD medium, and spotted onto YPD agar plates. (C) Cytosolic and mitochondrial redox states were analyzed using the indicator probes for DCFHDA and DHR 123, respectively. Yeast cells were pretreated with the probes for 20 min, washed twice with PBS, and treated with 10 mM H2O2 for 1 h with shaking. Probe intensity was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. (D) Stress sensitivity of por1Δ yeast cells to physiochemical stressors. Yeast cells (A600 ≈ 1.0) were streaked onto YPD agar plates containing various stressors as mentioned in Materials and Methods. BY, wild-type yeast cells without an empty vector; por1Δ, yeast cells in which the POR1 gene had been deleted.
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Title S2_Fig
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Description S2 Fig. Exogenous effect of ascorbate and its analogue on the stress sensitivity of ara2Δ yeast cells. (A) Monitoring of the effect was performed by spotting assay. Yeast cells pretreated with 10 mM AsA and 10 mM IAA for 1 h were exposed to 20 mM H2O2 for 1 h. Five microliters of diluted solutions were spotted onto YPD agar plates. Exogenous AsA- and IAA-treated cells showed better survival compared to cells under normal conditions, suggesting that their concentrations were sufficient for detoxifying endogenous and exogenous ROS and enhanced cell proliferation. WT, yeast cells transformed an empty vector; TC, OsMDHAR-expressing yeast cells. (B) Stress sensitivity of ara2Δ yeast cells to oxidative stress. Yeast cells were treated with abiotic stressors for 1 h with shaking and spotted onto YPD agar plates. For heat shock, yeast cells were incubated for 5 min at 55ºC, and then spotted as described above. BY, wild-type yeast cells without an empty vector; ara2Δ, yeast cells in which the ARA2 gene had been deleted.
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Title S3_Fig
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Description S3 Fig. Response of OsMDHAR-expressing yeast cells to abiotic stressors. Yeast cells (A600 ≈ 2.0) were challenged with various stressors, including 0.4 mM MD, 15 mM t-BOOH, 20 mM CuSO4, 40 mM FeCl2, 10 mM CdCl2, and 1% SDS, for 1 h at 28ºC with shaking. Stressed cells were serially diluted to 10−4 with YPD medium, spotted onto YPD agar plates, and then incubated for 3 days at 28ºC. WT, yeast cells transformed an empty vector; TC, OsMDHAR-expressing yeast cells.
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Title S1 Table
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Description S1 Table. Oligonucleotide sequence used in this study.
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Title S2 Table
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Description S2 Table. Strains and plasmids used in this study.
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When using this data, please cite the original publication:

Kim I, Kim Y, Kim Y, Park A, Kim H, Lee J, Yoon H (2016) Potential Application of the Oryza sativa Monodehydroascorbate Reductase Gene (OsMDHAR) to Improve the Stress Tolerance and Fermentative Capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLOS ONE 11(7): e0158841. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158841

Additionally, please cite the Dryad data package:

Kim I, Kim Y, Kim Y, Park A, Kim H, Lee J, Yoon H (2016) Data from: Potential application of the Oryza sativa monodehydroascorbate reductase gene (OsMDHAR) to improve the stress tolerance and fermentative capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dryad Digital Repository. http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.9bv73
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