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dc.contributor.author Lesmerises, Frederic
dc.contributor.author Johnson, Chris J.
dc.contributor.author St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues
dc.date.accessioned 2017-01-10T15:12:35Z
dc.date.available 2017-01-10T15:12:35Z
dc.date.issued 2017-01-06
dc.identifier doi:10.5061/dryad.ff6d4
dc.identifier.citation Lesmerises F, Johnson CJ, St-Laurent M (2017) Refuge or predation risk? Alternate ways to perceive hiker disturbance based on maternal state of female caribou. Ecology and Evolution 7(3): 845-854.
dc.identifier.issn 2045-7758
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10255/dryad.131621
dc.description Human presence in natural environments is often a source of stress that is perceived by large ungulates as an increased risk of predation. Alternatively, disturbance induced by hikers creates a relatively predator-free space that may serve as a refuge. We measured the behavioral responses of female caribou to disturbance associated with the presence of hikers during summer in the Gaspésie National Park. We used those data to determine whether caribou responded negatively to human activity (i.e., the predation risk hypothesis) or whether human activity resulted in a decrease in the magnitude of perceived risk (i.e., the refuge hypothesis). Female caribou with a calf spent nearly half of their time feeding, regardless of the presence of a trail or the number of hikers. They also decreased their vigilance near trails when the number of hikers increased. Conversely, lone females fed less frequently and almost doubled the time invested in vigilance under the same circumstances. However, both groups of females moved away from trails during the day, especially in the presence of hikers. We demonstrated that risk avoidance was specific to the maternal state of the individual. Lactating females accommodated the presence of hikers to increase time spent foraging and nutritional intake, providing support for the refuge hypothesis. Alternatively, lone females with lower energetic requirements and no maternal investment in a vulnerable calf appeared less tolerant to risk, consistent with the predation risk hypothesis. Synthesis and applications: Hikers influenced the vigilance–feeding trade-off in caribou, underlining the importance of appropriate management of linear structures and human activities, especially across the critical habitat of endangered species. Even if some individuals seemed to benefit from human presence, this behavioral adaptation was not sufficient to reduce annual calf mortality associated with predation.
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.ff6d4/1
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.ff6d4/2
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.ff6d4/3
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.ff6d4/4
dc.relation.isreferencedby doi:10.1002/ece3.2672
dc.subject Activity budget
dc.subject Ecotourism
dc.subject Human shield
dc.subject Linear features
dc.subject Maternal state
dc.subject Space use
dc.title Data from: Refuge or predation risk? Alternate ways to perceive hiker disturbance based on maternal state of female caribou
dc.type Article
dwc.ScientificName Rangifer
dc.contributor.correspondingAuthor St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues
prism.publicationName Ecology and Evolution

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Title Focal observation for lone females
Downloaded 13 times
Description Number of seconds and proportion of time spent in a given behaviour during focal observations for lone females (without a calf).
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Title Focal observation for females with a calf
Downloaded 9 times
Description Number of seconds and proportion of time spent in a given behaviour during focal observations for females accompanied by a calf.
Download focal_withcalf.csv (23.58 Kb)
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Title Space use data for lone females
Downloaded 11 times
Description Data used in figure 2, i.e. frequency distribution of distances to a trail for telemetry locations for lone females (without a calf).
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Title Space use data for females with a calf
Downloaded 11 times
Description Data used in figure 2, i.e. frequency distribution of distances to a trail for telemetry locations for suited females (accompanied by a calf).
Download f1datagraph_spaceuse.csv (2.623 Kb)
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