Data from: Online spatial normalization for real-time fMRI
Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) is a recently emerged technique that demands fast data processing within a single repetition time (TR), such as a TR of 2 seconds. Data preprocessing in rtfMRI has rarely involved spatial normalization, which can not be accomplished in a short time period. However, spatial normalization may be critical for accurate functional localization in a stereotactic space and is an essential procedure for some emerging applications of rtfMRI. In this study, we introduced an online spatial normalization method that adopts a novel affine registration (AFR) procedure based on principal axes registration (PA) and Gauss-Newton optimization (GN) using the self-adaptive β parameter, termed PA-GN(β) AFR and nonlinear registration (NLR) based on discrete cosine transform (DCT). In AFR, PA provides an appropriate initial estimate of GN to induce the rapid convergence of GN. In addition, the β parameter, which relies on the change rate of cost function, is employed to self-adaptively adjust the iteration step of GN. The accuracy and performance of PA-GN(β) AFR were confirmed using both simulation and real data and compared with the traditional AFR. The appropriate cutoff frequency of the DCT basis function in NLR was determined to balance the accuracy and calculation load of the online spatial normalization. Finally, the validity of the online spatial normalization method was further demonstrated by brain activation in the rtfMRI data.