Data from: Linking the investigations of character evolution and species diversification
Magnuson-Ford, Karen; Otto, Sarah P. (2012), Data from: Linking the investigations of character evolution and species diversification, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.2sr417nv
Variation in diversification rates is often studied by investigating traits related to species' ecology and life history. Often, however, it is unknown whether these traits evolve gradually or in punctuated bursts during speciation. Using phylogenetic data and species' present-day trait information, we present a novel approach to assess the mode of character change while accounting for trait-dependent speciation and extinction. Our model, "Binary-State Speciation and Extinction - node enhanced state shift" (BiSSE-ness), estimates both the rate of change occurring along lineages and the probability of change occurring during speciation, as well as independent speciation and extinction rates for each character state. Using simulations, we found that BiSSE- ness is able to distinguish along-lineage and speciational change and to estimate accurately the parameters associated with character change and diversification rates. We applied BiSSE-ness to an empirical primate data set, finding evidence for along-lineage changes in primate mating systems and social behaviours, whereas shifts in habitat were associated with speciation. In cases where trait changes may be linked to the speciation process itself (e.g., niche-related traits), BiSSE-ness provides a suitable framework in which to simultaneously address questions regarding species' diversification and character change.