Data from: Common latitudinal gradients in functional richness and functional evenness across marine and terrestrial systems
Schumm, Matthew et al. (2019), Data from: Common latitudinal gradients in functional richness and functional evenness across marine and terrestrial systems, v2, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.96096t0
Functional diversity is an important aspect of biodiversity, but its relationship to species diversity in time and space is poorly understood. Here we compare spatial patterns of functional and taxonomic diversity across marine and terrestrial systems to identify commonalities in their respective ecological and evolutionary drivers. We placed species-level ecological traits into comparable multidimensional frameworks for two model systems, marine bivalves and terrestrial birds, and used global species-occurrence data to examine the distribution of functional diversity with latitude and longitude. In both systems, tropical faunas show high total functional richness but low functional evenness (i.e. the tropics contain a highly skewed distribution of species among functional groups). Functional groups that persist toward the poles become more uniform in species richness, such that functional richness declines and functional evenness rises with latitude in both systems. Temperate assemblages are more functionally even than tropical assemblages subsampled to temperate levels of species richness, suggesting that high species richness in the tropics reflects a high degree of ecological specialization within a few functional groups and/or factors that favor high recent speciation or reduced extinction rates in those groups.
National Science Foundation,
Award: EAR-0922156; EAR-1633535