Data from: Genomic signatures of adaptation to a precipitation gradient in Nigerian sorghum
Olatoye, Marcus O.; Hu, Zhenbin; Maina, Fanna; Morris, Geoffrey P. (2019), Data from: Genomic signatures of adaptation to a precipitation gradient in Nigerian sorghum, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.g0141g7
Evolution of plants under climatic gradients may lead to clinal adaptation. Understanding the genomic basis of clinal adaptation in crops species could facilitate breeding for climate resilience. We investigated signatures of clinal adaptation in the cereal crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]) to the precipitation gradient in West Africa using a panel (n = 607) of sorghum accessions from diverse agroclimatic zones of Nigeria. Significant correlations were observed between common-garden phenotypes of three putative climate-adaptive traits (flowering time, plant height, and panicle length) and climatic variables. The panel was characterized at >400,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Redundancy analysis indicated that a small proportion of SNP variation can be explained by climate (1%), space (1%), and climate collinear with space (3%). Discriminant analysis of principal components identified three genetic groups that are distributed differently along the precipitation gradient. Genome-wide association studies were conducted with phenotypes and three climatic variables (annual mean precipitation, precipitation in the driest quarter, and annual mean temperature). There was no overall enrichment of associations near a priori candidate genes implicated in flowering time, height, and inflorescence architecture in cereals, but several significant associations were found near a priori candidates including photoperiodic flowering regulators SbCN12 and Ma6. Together, the findings suggest that a small (3%) but significant proportion of nucleotide variation in Nigerian sorghum landraces reflects clinal adaptation along the West African precipitation gradient.