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Supplementary material for Roca-Neyra Equids: Late Miocene to Early Pleistocene Hipparion - Equus database for multivariate and statistical analysis for European fossil Equids

Cite this dataset

Cirilli, Omar; Bernor, Raymond Louis; Rook, Lorenzo (2020). Supplementary material for Roca-Neyra Equids: Late Miocene to Early Pleistocene Hipparion - Equus database for multivariate and statistical analysis for European fossil Equids [Dataset]. Dryad.


We undertake a redescription of the equid sample from the early Pleistocene of Roca – Neyra, France. This locality has been recently calibrated at the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary (2.6 ± 0.2 Ma) and therefore it is of interest for the first appearance of the genus Equus and last appearance of hipparionine horses. The Roca – Neyra equid sample, re – analyzed herein using morphological, morphometrical and statistical analyses, has revealed the co – occurrence of Plesiohipparion cf. ?P. rocinantis and Equus cf. E. livenzovensis. The analysis undertaken on several European, African and Asian “Hipparion” sensu lato species from late Miocene to early Pleistocene has revealed different remnant Hipparion lineages in the Plio – Pleistocene of Europe: Plesiohipparion, Proboscidippaion and likely Cremohipparion. The discovery of the first European monodactyl horse, Equus cf. E. livenzovensis in itself correlates Roca – Neyra with other 2.6 Ma European localities in Italy, Spain and in the Khapry area (Azov Sea region). The morphological description of the Equus cf. E. livenzovensis lower cheek teeth has highlighted intermediate features between the North American Pliocene species Equus simplicidens and early Pleistocene European Equus stenonis. Our study supports the hypothesis that E. livenzovensis is a plausible evolutionary predecessor for the Equus stenonis group. These observations underscore the importance of Roca – Neyra, as an important locality for the last European hipparions and the first Equus in the early Pleistocene of Europe.


This database provide a suite of the most representative or African, Asian and European "Hipparion" sensu lato species, and of the European Early Pleistocene Equus and extant zebras (E. grevyi). 

These databases have been used by us to identify the remnant "Hipparion" lineages in the Plio-Pleistocene of Europe, and to analyze the Early Pleistocene Equus species by morphometrical and statistical analysis (see Cirilli et al., 2020 - New insights on the early Pleistocene equids from Roca – Neyra (France, Central Europe); implications for the Hipparion LAD and the Equus FAD in Europe. - Journal of Paleontology). 

The databases provide a large dataset for bivariate or multivariate analyses as PCA, LDA and CVA for fossil equids, in cranial and postcranial elements. 

Most of the linear measurements (to the nearest 0.1 mm) here provided have been directly collected, and integrated with other published measurements of fossil equids. The source of these data is indicated in each table. 

The measurements standards and anatomical nomenclature follow the international guidelines of Eisenmann et al., (1988) and Bernor et al., (1997) for studying fossil equids. 

Usage notes

The International measurements standars for studing fossil equids are:

Eisenmann, V., Alberdi, M.T., De Giuli, C., and Staesche, U., 1988, Methodology, in Woodburne, M., and Sondaar, P.Y., eds., Studying fossil horses: Leiden, EJ Brill Press, p. 1–71.

Bernor, R.L., Tobien, H., Hayek, L.A.C., Mittmann, H.W., 1997, Hippotherium primigenium (Equidae, Mammalia) from the late Miocene of Höwenegg (Hegau, Germany): Andrias 10, p. 230.

The description of the measurements indicated in each table (M1, M2, M3, M4...) is referred to these standards.