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Sunflower consensus scoring

Cite this dataset

Marshall, Carine (2023). Sunflower consensus scoring [Dataset]. Dryad.


Biological rhythms are ubiquitous. They can be generated by circadian oscillators, which produce daily rhythms in physiology and behavior, as well as by developmental oscillator such as the segmentation clock, which produces modular developmental units in a periodic fashion. Here, we show that the circadian clock controls the timing of late-stage floret development, or anthesis, in domesticated sunflower. In these plants, what appears to be a single inflorescence consists of up to thousands of individual florets tightly packed onto a capitulum disk. While early floret development occurs continuously across capitula to generate iconic spiral phyllotaxy, during anthesis floret development occurs in discrete ring-like pseudowhorls with up to hundreds of florets undergoing simultaneous maturation. We demonstrate circadian regulation of floral organ growth and show that the effects of light on this process are time-of-day dependent. Disruption of circadian rhythms in floral organ development causes loss of pseudowhorl formation. Thus, we show that the sunflower circadian clock acts in concert with environmental response pathways to tightly synchronize the anthesis of hundreds of florets each day, generating spatial patterns on the developing capitulum disk. This coordinated mass release of floral rewards at predictable times of day likely promotes pollinator visits and plant reproductive success.


The 15-minute interval images were analyzed sequentially in a stack on ImageJ. A clockwise parastichy was selected, and florets numbered from the outer edge of the pseudowhorl inward. At images taken at 15-minute intervals, the ovaries, stamens, and styles for each floret were scored for a change in size from the previous image. Four parastichies per condition were analyzed, from two different sunflower heads. In LL|25°C conditions, which had no pseudowhorls, 10 florets in a parastichy were scored for 48 hours. For all other conditions tested, a parastichy from the 2nd pseudowhorl was scored until anthesis of all florets per parastichy within the pseudowhorl was complete. For the DD|25°C condition, the 4th pseudowhorl was also scored.

Usage notes

Microsoft Excel


National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, Award: IOS 1238040

National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Award: CA-D-PLB-2259- 524 H