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Estimating the costs of new mobility travel options: monetary and non-monetary factors


Fulton, Lewis; Kothawala, Alimurtaza; Compostella, Junia (2020), Estimating the costs of new mobility travel options: monetary and non-monetary factors, Dryad, Dataset,


UC Davis researchers have developed a cost model of travel choices that individuals make related to urban vehicle travel. These choices can include deciding to own, ride in, and drive a private vehicle or use pooled or solo ridesourcing (e.g., Uber). The model considers both monetary and non-monetary factors that affect travel choice. Monetary factors include the costs of purchasing, maintaining, and fueling different types of privately owned vehicles; and the cost of using ridesourcing services. Non-monetary (or “hedonic”) factors include travel time, parking time/inconvenience, willingness to drive or be a passenger in a driven or automated vehicle, and willingness to travel with strangers. The travel choices affected by these factors impact broader society through traffic congestion, pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, accidents, etc. and thus may be an important focus of policy. This report reviews recent literature, considers factors affecting travel choices, and reports, on a conjoint pilot survey or stated preferences. Finally, it considers approaches to apply time value to factors that are not typically associated with specific trips, such as time spent on vehicle maintenance and parking. The results should enable a deeper understanding of the likelihood that individuals will own and use private vehicles or use shared (solo and pooled) ridesourcing, and how automated vehicle services could affect these choices in the future. The study also highlights additional research needs, such as a large scale stated preference study covering more factors than have been included in previous studies.


The project involved convening focus groups and administering a pilot survey (sample size, 37) of professionals (21 to 47 years). This group reflected a convenience sample and one that is relatively likely to have experience with ridesharing and an awareness of automated vehicle concepts. The discussions and surveys were focused on commuting trips.

Three travel modes were considered for this study:

  • Solo ridesourcing
  • Pooled ridesourcing (door-to-door with stops to pick up and drop off other riders)
  •  “Express” pooled ridesourcing (short walk to common pickup and drop off point, without any additional stops along the way)

A set of hypothetical trip situations were presented to participants, with trip characteristics varying by:

  • Trip time uncertainty (minimum/maximum trip time range)
  • Maximum number of other passengers allowed on trip
  • Trip cost
  • Whether driven or automated vehicle trip

The research was undertaken in two parts, with a qualitative and quantitative (survey) component.

Usage Notes

The numbered responses in the survey database relate to the order of the choices in the survey.  So first option = 1, second option =2, etc. All else should be self explanatory from reading the survey instrument, included here.


National Center for Sustainable Transport, Award: NA