Sub-Lithospheric Small-Scale Convection Tomographically Imaged Beneath the Pacific Plate
Cite this dataset
Eilon, Zachary (2022). Sub-Lithospheric Small-Scale Convection Tomographically Imaged Beneath the Pacific Plate [Dataset]. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.25349/D9R89J
Small-scale convection beneath the oceanic plates has been invoked to explain off-axis non-plume volcanism, departure from simple seafloor depth-age relationships, and intraplate gravity lineations. We deployed thirty broadband OBS stations on ~40 Ma Pacific seafloor in a region notable for gravity anomalies, measured by satellite altimetry, elongated parallel to plate motion. P-wave teleseismic tomography reveals alternating upper mantle velocity anomalies on the order of ±2%, aligned with the gravity lineations. These features, which correspond to ~300-500 ˚K lateral temperature contrast, and possible hydrous or carbonatitic partial melt, are – surprisingly – strongest between 150 and 260 km depth, indicating rapid vertical motions through a low-viscosity asthenospheric channel. Coherence and admittance analysis of gravity and topography using new multibeam bathymetry soundings substantiates the presence of mantle density variations, and forward modelling predicts gravity anomalies that qualitatively match observed lineations. This study provides observational support for small-scale convective rolls beneath the oceanic plates.
National Science Foundation, Award: OCE-1658491
National Science Foundation, Award: OCE-1658214
National Science Foundation, Award: OCE-1658070
National Science Foundation, Award: OCE-2051265