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Dryad

Data from: Vegetation dynamics 1946–2018 in an old-growth conifer forest

Cite this dataset

Rydin, Håkan; Hytteborn, Håkan; Backéus, Ingvar (2024). Data from: Vegetation dynamics 1946–2018 in an old-growth conifer forest [Dataset]. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.0gb5mkm85

Abstract

We analysed ground vegetation in 250 plots in 2018 in the old-growth Picea abies-dominated forest Säby Västerskog, SE Sweden as a follow-up of studies in 1946 and 1998 with the same layout of plots. The vegetation changes were not clearly directional: the species composition in 2018 was intermediate between that of 1946 and 1998, whereas in 1998 species richness was higher and with the unique presence of a number of species indicating small-scale disturbances. Vaccinium myrtillus increased in cover since 1946 and Avenella flexuosa decreased. This goes against regional trends, attributed to climate warming and changes in nitrogen deposition. Regional changes are overshadowed by fine-scale disturbances and micro-successions.

README: Data from: Vegetation dynamics 1946–2018 in an old-growth conifer forest.

https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.0gb5mkm85

We analysed ground vegetation in 250 plots in 2018 in the old-growth Picea abies-dominated forest Säby Västerskog, SE Sweden as a follow-up of studies in 1946 and 1998 with the same layout of plots.

 The plots were not  permanently marked but their position is recorded with GPS coordinates to make it possible to repeat the study. Plot size was 0.5 m2 in 1946, but changed to 1 m2 in 1998 and 2018. Cover was recorded in the Hult-Sernander-Du Rietz scale.

Description of the data and file structure

Data are included in csv-files (comma-delimited, decimal point). Missing data are coded as "NA".

Species names with abbreviations used in the data files

Species Abbreviation
Vascular plants  
Agrostis canina Agr.cani
Agrostis capillaris Agr.capi
Anemone nemorosa Ane.nemo
Anthoxanthum odoratum Ant.odor
Athyrium filix-femina Ath.fili
Avenella flexuosa Ave.flex
Calamagrostis arundinacea Cal.arun
Campanula persicifolia Cam.pers
Carex canescens Car.cane
Carex digitata Car.digi
Carex echinata Car.echi
Carex leporina Car.lepo
Carex nigra Car.nigr
Carex pallescens Car.pall
Carex pilulifera Car.pilu
Chamaenerion angustifolium Cha.angu
Convallaria majalis Con.maja
Dactylis glomerata Dac.glom
Deschampsia cespitosa Des.cesp
Dryopteris carthusiana Dry.cart
Dryopteris dilatata/D. expansa Dry.di.e
Dryopteris filix-mas Dry.fili
Epilobium montanum Epi.mont
Equisetum sylvaticum Equ.sylv
Festuca ovina Fes.ovin
Fragaria vesca Fra.vesc
Galeopsis tetrahit Gal.tetr
Geranium robertianum Ger.robe
Goodyera repens Goo.repe
Gymnocarpium dryopteris Gym.dryo
Hepatica nobilis Hep.nobi
Hieracium sect. Hieracium Hie.Hier
Hieracium sect. Vulgata Hie.Vulg
Hylotelephium telephium Hyl.tele
Hypericum maculatum Hyp.macu
Juncus filiformis Jun.fili
Lactuca muralis Lac.mura
Lathyrus linifolius Lat.lini
Linnaea borealis Lin.bore
Luzula pilosa Luz.pilo
Lycopodium annotinum Lyc.anno
Lycopodium clavatum Lyc.clav
Lysimachia europaea Lys.euro
Lysimachia thyrsiflora Lys.thyr
Maianthemum bifolium Mai.bifo
Melampyrum pratense Mel.prat
Melampyrum sylvaticum Mel.sylv
Melica nutans Mel.nuta
Milium effusum Mil.effu
Moehringia trinervia Moe.trin
Orthilia secunda Ort.secu
Oxalis acetosella Oxa.acet
Phegopteris connectilis Phe.conn
Poa annua Poa.annu
Poa nemoralis Poa.nemo
Polypodium vulgare Pol.vulg
Pteridium aquilinum Pte.aqui
Ranunculus repens Ran.repe
Ribes alpinum Rib.alpi
Ribes uva-crispa Rib.uva
Rubus idaeus Rub.idae
Sanicula europaea San.euro
Solidago virgaurea Sol.virg
Stellaria alsine Ste.alsi
Stellaria graminea Ste.gram
Urtica dioica Urt.dioi
Vaccinium myrtillus Vac.myrt
Vaccinium vitis-idaea Vac.viti
Veronica chamaedrys Ver.cham
Veronica officinalis Ver.offi
Vicia sepium Vic.sepi
Viola palustris Vio.palu
Viola riviniana Vio.rivi
Bryophytes  
Atrichum undulatum Atr.undu
Aulacomnium palustre Aul.palu
Brachythecium s.l., Eurhynchium s.l. Bra.Eur
Dicranum spp. Dicr.spp
Hylocomium splendens/Pleurozium schreberi Hyl.Ple
Mnium s.l., Rhodobryum roseum Mni.spp
Plagiochila asplenioides Pla.aspl
Polytrichum spp. Poly.spp
Ptilium crista-castrensis Pti.cris
Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus Rhy.triq
Sphagnum spp. Sph.spp

Data file SaVa13.csv

Cover of 13 species recorded in plots in 1946, 1998 and 2018

Column Explanation
Plot Plot number. 101-353, 1946; 401-643, 1998; 701-950, 2018
Surv Survey number. 1, 1946; 2, 1998; 3, 2018
xcol Plot position in original grid, approximately W-E direction, but not in strict order
yrad Plot position in original grid, approximately N-S
East SWEREF99 east coordinate
North SWEREF99 north coordinate
Species columns Cover of species in Hult-Sernander-Du Rietz scale (5, > 50% cover; 4, 25-50%; 3, 12.5-25%; 2, 6.25-12.5%; 1, < 6.25%). 

 

Data file SaVaAll.csv

Presence and cover of all species recorded in plots in 1946, 1998 and 2018

Column Explanation
Plot Plot number. 101-353, 1946; 401-643, 1998; 701-950, 2018
Surv Survey number. 1, 1946; 2, 1998; 3, 2018
East SWEREF99 east coordinate
North SWEREF99 north coordinate
Elev Elevation (m a.s.l)
Species columns 1946 and 2018: Cover of species in Hult-Sernander-Du Rietz scale (0-5). 1998: Cover for the 13 species included in SaVa13.csv. Presence-absence for the rest (0, 1).

Data file env2018.csv

Environmental data for the plots in 2018

Column Explanation
Plot Plot number 701-950
Surv Survey number. 3, 2018
East SWEREF99 east coordinate
North SWEREF99 north coordinate
Elev Elevation (m a.s.l)
Treedens Tree densities within 5-m radius around the plot. 0, no trees; 1, few trees; 2, modest density; 3, high density
Columns Picea to Prunsp Presence (1,0) of tree species within 5-m radius around plot: Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Quercus robur, Corylus avellana, Sorbus aucuparia, Salix caprea, Betula pendula, Betula pubescens, Acer platanoides, Sorbus intermedia, Populus tremula, Sambucus racemosa, Prunus padus, Frangula alnus, Prunus sp.
Ntreesp Number of tree species within 5-m radius around the plot
Treebasepc Cover of tree base or big root above ground in plot (%)
Treebase Tree base, or big root above ground in plot, cover scale 0-5
Logs Number of logs crossing plot
Logspc Cover of logs in plot (%)
Litter Cover of litter in plot, cover scale 0-5
Soil Cover of open soil in plot, cover scale 0-5
Stone Cover of stone, boulder or rock in plot, cover scale 0-5
Rootplate Presence of root plates in plot, 0/1
Rootpit Presence of root pit in plot, 0/1
Gap Plot situated in forest gap, 0/1
Boar Disturbance by wild boar in plot, 0/1

Code/Software

R script file “SpChanges_Fig4.R”

Changes in species cover and frequency between years. Calculations for Fig. 4

R script file “Turnover_Fig2.S2.TabS1.R”

R script for Figs 2 and S2, and Table S1

R script file “Ordinations_Fig5.6.7.8.S1.R”

R script for ordinations presented in Figs 5-8 and Fig. S1

Methods

We analysed ground vegetation in 250 plots in 2018 in the old-growth Picea abies-dominated forest Säby Västerskog, SE Sweden as a follow-up of studies in 1946 and 1998 with the same layout of plots.

The plots were not  permanently marked but their position is recorded with GPS coordinates to make it possible to repeat the study. Plot size was 0.5 m2 in 1946, but changed to 1 m2 in 1998 and 2018. Cover was recorded in the Hult-Sernander-Du Rietz scale.

Vegetation changes were analysed by ordination and similarity in species composition. For a subset of species the cover changes are shown in maps for the three surveys.

Funding

Uppsala University, Swedish Phytogeographical Society