Data from: Lineage divergence, local adaptation across a biogeographic break, and artificial transport, shape the genetic structure in the ascidian Pyura chilensis
Segovia, Nicolás I.; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Poulin, Elie; Haye, Pilar A. (2017), Data from: Lineage divergence, local adaptation across a biogeographic break, and artificial transport, shape the genetic structure in the ascidian Pyura chilensis, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.0s87v
Marine benthic organisms inhabit a heterogeneous environment in which connectivity between populations occurs mainly through dispersive larval stages, while local selective pressures acting on early life history stages lead to non-random mortality, shaping adaptive genetic structure. In order to test the influence of local adaptation and neutral processes in a marine benthic species with low dispersal, in this study we used Genotyping by Sequencing technology to compare the neutral and putatively selected signals (neutral and outlier loci, respectively) in SNPs scattered throughout the genome in six local populations of the commercially exploited ascidian Pyura chilensis along the southeast Pacific coast (24°–42°S). This species is sessile as an adult, has a short-lived larval stage, and may also be dispersed by artificial transport as biofouling. We found that the main signal in neutral loci was a highly divergent lineage present at 39°S, and a subjacent signal that indicated a separation at 30°S (north/south), widely reported in the area. North/south separation was the main signal in outlier loci, and the linage divergence at 39°S was subjacent. We conclude that the geographic structure of the genetic diversity of outlier and neutral loci was established by different strengths of environmental, historical and anthropogenic factors.