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Data from: Temporal and spatial comparisons of angiosperm diversity between eastern Asia and North America

Cite this dataset

Hu, Haihua et al. (2022). Data from: Temporal and spatial comparisons of angiosperm diversity between eastern Asia and North America [Dataset]. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.12jm63xz3

Abstract

Eastern Asia (EA) and North America north of Mexico (NA) have comparable latitude, land area, and climate, but the overall plant diversity is much higher in EA than in NA. Despite intensive studies on disjunct taxa of the two regions, the temporal and spatial diversity patterns between the two floras remain unclear. Here we explore the floristic differences between EA and NA using the well-studied floras of China and the United States of America (USA) as exemplars, while also employing a newly generated dated phylogeny covering ~90% of the angiosperm genera of the two countries and comprehensive spatial distribution data. We find that China possesses both higher richness and phylogenetic diversity (PD) for angiosperm genera than the USA. Notably, most lineages contribute to the PD anomaly between the two floras, with 46 of 58 lineages having higher PD in China. Temporally, China has a higher proportion of genera that originated before the Miocene than are found in the USA (29.9% vs 23.2%). The eastern USA has more genera that originated during the Paleogene than does the western USA, but the reverse pattern is observed after the middle Miocene, with more genera originating in the west. Spatially, China shows a more distinct east-west deviation in diversity than the USA with eastern China possessing much higher generic richness and PD and more ancient lineages than western China. However, the eastern USA possesses lower generic richness, but higher PD and more ancient lineages than the western USA. Both the floras in China and the USA share a signature of an older east and a younger west, and this pattern may be largely driven by regional orogenic activities and climatic changes in the west of the two regions. Finally, our study indicates that more efforts are needed to enhance biodiversity conservation in southern China and the eastern USA by identifying and protecting phylogenetic diversity hotspots.

Methods

The dataset contains:
(1) The genus-level richness, PD, and standardized PD of each grid cell with the top 5% PD (in blue) and standardized PD (in red) highlighted;
grid_richness_pd_standarized_PD.xlsx

(2) The five-gene matrix of 9035 species;
matrix_five_gene_9035sp.phy

(3) The best ML tree of 9035 species with support values from 1000 bootstrap replicates;
best_ML_tree_9035sp.tre

(4) The time tree of 9035 species estimated using treePL;
time_tree_9035sp.tre

(5) Ten complete-species trees of 41410 species generated by randomly inserting species without sequence data using “scenario 2” in “V.PhyloMaker” package of R;
10_species_tree_41410sp.tre

(6) Gridded distribution information for the Chinese and the USA angiosperms (not including non-native species). As we do not have copyright for maps of China and the USA, please contact us for further information about the grid numbers.
spatial_distribution_data.csv

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China, Award: 31461123001

National Science Foundation, Award: DEB-1442280

Strategic Priority Research Program, CAS, Award: XDB31000000

Strategic Priority Research Program, CAS, Award: XDA19050103

International Partnership Program, CAS, Award: 151853KYSB20190027

Biological Resources Programme, CAS, Award: KFJ-BRP-017-50

Young Elite Scientist Sponsorship Program by CAST, Award: 2018QNRC001

Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Award: 2020080

Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Award: 2021077

National Natural Science Foundation of China, Award: 32122009

National Natural Science Foundation of China, Award: 31800178

National Natural Science Foundation of China, Award: 31870506

Sino-Africa Joint Research Center, CAS International Research and Education Development Program, Award: SAJC202101

National Natural Science Foundation of China, Award: BK20181398

National Science Foundation, Award: DBI-1930030

University of Hong Kong, Award: GJTD-2020-05