Data from: Population structure and reticulate evolution of Saccharomyces eubayanus and its lager-brewing hybrids
Peris, David et al. (2014), Data from: Population structure and reticulate evolution of Saccharomyces eubayanus and its lager-brewing hybrids, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.153b8
Reticulate evolution can be a major driver of diversification into new niches, especially in disturbed habitats and at the edges of ranges. Industrial fermentation strains of yeast provide a window into these processes, but progress has been hampered by a limited understanding of the natural diversity and distribution of Saccharomyces species and populations. For example, lager beer is brewed with Saccharomyces pastorianus, an alloploid hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus, a species only recently discovered in Patagonia, Argentina. Here we report that genetically diverse strains of S. eubayanus are readily isolated from Patagonia, demonstrating that the species is well established there. Analyses of multi-locus sequence data strongly suggest that there are two diverse and highly differentiated Patagonian populations. S. eubayanus alleles present among hybrid European brewing strains had strikingly low diversity, suggesting they were drawn from a small subpopulation that is closely related to one of the Patagonian populations. For the first time, we also report the rare isolation of S. eubayanus outside of Patagonia, in Wisconsin, USA. In contrast to the clear population differentiation in Patagonia, the North American strains represent a recent and possibly transient admixture of the two Patagonian populations. These complex and varied reticulation events are not adequately captured by conventional phylogenetic methods and required analyses of Bayesian concordance factors and phylogenetic networks to accurately summarize and interpret. These findings show how genetically diverse eukaryotic microbes can produce rare but economically important hybrids with low genetic diversity when they migrate from their natural ecological context.