Data from: Time-lagged effect of predators on tadpole behaviour and parasite infection
Koprivnikar, Janet; Urichuk, Theresa M. Y. (2017), Data from: Time-lagged effect of predators on tadpole behaviour and parasite infection, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.157c8
Prey should adjust their defences against natural enemies to match their current level of risk and balance other needs. This is particularly important when optimal defences represent trade-offs, as is the case with many predator-induced trait-mediated indirect effects (TMIEs) that are antagonistic to those promoting host resistance to parasites and pathogens. However, trade-offs may depend on whether different natural enemies are present simultaneously or represent temporally discrete threats. We found that larval amphibians (Anaxyrus americanus) previously exposed to predator cues did not engage in anti-parasite behaviours (activity increases) in response to a current risk of infection by a pathogenic trematode parasite compared to controls, resulting in higher infection intensities. This suggests that the memory of the likely more lethal threat (predation) had greater influence, maladaptively dampening tadpole activity. Incorporating complexity inherent in natural systems, including spatial and temporal overlap, is necessary to better understand natural enemy ecology and how TMIEs relate to infectious diseases.