Data from: Hybridization between distant lineages increases adaptive variation during a biological invasion: stickleback in Switzerland
Lucek, Kay et al. (2010), Data from: Hybridization between distant lineages increases adaptive variation during a biological invasion: stickleback in Switzerland, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.1736
The three-spined stickleback is a wide spread Holarctic species complex that radiated from the sea into freshwaters after the retreat of the Pleistocene ice sheets. In Switzerland, sticklebacks were absent with the exception of the far northwest, but different introduced populations have expanded to occupy a wide range of habitats since the late 19th century. A well studied adaptive phenotypic trait in sticklebacks is the number of lateral plates. With few exceptions, freshwater and marine populations in Europe are fixed for either the low or the fully plated phenotype respectively. Switzerland, in contrast, harbors in close proximity the full range of phenotypic variation known from across the continent. We addressed the phylogeographic origins of Swiss sticklebacks using mitochondrial partial cytochrome b and control region sequences. We found only 5 different haplotypes but these originated from 3 distinct European regions, fixed for different plate phenotypes. These lineages occur largely in isolation at opposite ends of Switzerland, but co-occur in a large central part. Across the country, we found a strong correlation between a microsatellite linked to the high plate ectodysplasin allele and the mitochondrial haplotype from a region where the fully plated phenotype is fixed. Phylogenomic and population genomic analysis of 481 polymorphic AFLP loci indicate genetic admixture in the central part of the country. The same part of the country also carries elevated within-population phenotypic variation. We conclude that during the recent invasive range expansion of stickleback in Switzerland, adaptive and neutral between-population genetic variation was converted into within-population variation, raising the possibility that hybridization between colonizing lineages contributed to the ecological success of sticklebacks in Switzerland.