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Data from: Habitat deterioration promotes the evolution of direct development in metamorphosing species

Citation

ten Brink, Hanna; Onstein, Renske; de Roos, Andre (2020), Data from: Habitat deterioration promotes the evolution of direct development in metamorphosing species, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.1g1jwstsc

Abstract

Although metamorphosis is widespread in the animal kingdom, several species have evolved life cycle modifications to avoid complete metamorphosis. Some species, e.g., many salamanders and newts, have deleted the adult stage via a process called paedomorphosis. Others, e.g., some frog species and marine invertebrates, no longer have a distinct larval stage and reach maturation via direct development. Here we study which ecological conditions can lead to the loss of metamorphosis via the evolution of direct development. To do so, we use size-structured consumer-resource models in conjunction with the adaptive-dynamics approach. In case the larval habitat deteriorates, individuals will produce larger offspring and in concert accelerate metamorphosis. While this leads to the evolutionary transition from metamorphosis to direct development when the adult habitat is highly favourable, the population will go extinct in case the adult habitat does not provide sufficient food in order to escape metamorphosis. With a phylogenetic approach we furthermore show that among amphibians the transition of metamorphosis to direct development is indeed, in line with model predictions, conditional on and preceded by the evolution of larger egg sizes.

Usage Notes

BayesTraits_data_files
This folder contains the data files used for the phylogenetic analysis 

IBM_DirectDevelopment_code
This folder contains the C++ code of the individual based model

IBM_DirectDevelopment_Runs
This folder contains the results of the IBM.

For Fig B1 we used LowX2_p10_time.txt in the subfolder 'rep1'
For Fig B2 we used HighX2_p2_time.txt in the subfolder 'rep2' for the upper panels and HighX2_p1_time.txt in the subfolder 'rep1' for the lower panels. 

 

PSPM_DirectDevelopment
This folder contains the header file and an R-script that can be used to calculate the results of the fat-reserves model. 

PSPM_GenericModel.zip
This folder contains the header file and an R-script that can be used to calculate the results of the generic size-structured model. 

 

Funding

European Research Council, Award: ERC Grant Agreement No. 322814