Leaf architecture and functional traits for 122 species at the University of California at Berkeley botanical garden
Data files
Aug 13, 2024 version files 44.44 GB

anatomy_photos20240726T061211Z001_(2).zip

anatomy_photos20240726T061211Z002.zip

anatomy_photos20240726T061211Z003.zip

anatomy_photos20240726T061211Z004_(2).zip

anatomy_photos20240726T061211Z005.zip

anatomy_photos20240726T061211Z006_(2).zip

datasheets.zip

force_displacement_curves.zip

hydraulics.zip

LeafVeinCNN.zip

LICOR_logs20240726T061206Z001.zip

README.md

Rscripts.zip

UCBG_122spp_list.csv

UCBG_122spp_occurrences.csv

UCBG_122spp.txt

UCBG_venation_anatomy.csv

UCBG_venation_form_data.zip

UCBG_venation_form_images.zip

UCBG_venation_function.csv

UCBG_venation_mechanics.csv
Abstract
The data set contains leaf venation architecture and functional traits for a phylogenetically diverse set of 122 plant species (including ferns, basal angiosperms, monocots, basal eudicots, asterids, and rosids) collected from the living collections of the University of California Botanical Garden at Berkeley (37.87 °N, 122.23 °W; CA, USA) from February to September, 2021. The sampled species originated from all continents, except Antarctica, and are distributed in different growth forms (aquatic, herb, climbing, tree, shrub). The functional dataset comprises 31 (mechanical, hydraulic, anatomical, physiological, economical, and chemical) traits and describes six main leaf functional axes (hydraulic conductance, resistance and resilience to damages caused by drought and herbivory, resilience to damages, mechanical support, and construction cost), as well as how architecture features vary across venation networks. Our trait dataset is suitable for (1) functional and architectural characterization of plant species; (2) identification of venation architecturefunction tradeoffs; (3) investigation of evolutionary trends in leaf venation networks, and (4) mechanistic modeling of leaf function. Data is made available under the Open Data Commons Attribution License. You are free to copy, distribute, and use the database; to produce works from the database; and to modify, transform, and build upon the database. You must attribute any public use of the database, or works produced from the database, in the manner specified in the license. For any use or redistribution of the database, or works produced from it, you must make clear to others the license of the database and keep intact any notices on the original database.
README: Leaf architecture and functional traits for 122 species at the University of California at Berkeley botanical garden
https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.1g1jwsv36
Description of the data and file structure
 The ZIP archives expands to 6,800 Files, 542 Folders, organized as below:
DataS1 [6,805 Files, 542 Folders, 60.8 GB]:
 “README.txt” file in text document files (TXT) format containing contact information of the corresponding author and principal investigator.
 “UCBG_122spp.txt” contains a phylogenetic tree for the 122 plant species.
 “UCBG_122spp_occurrences.csv” file in comma separated value (CSV) format with 127,761 coordinates of species occurrence extracted from BIEN and GBIF databases.
VARIABLES
* spp_code [Column A, categorical]: species code, comprising the first three letters of the genus and the first three letters of the species name.
* latitude [Column B, numeric]: latitude of species occurrence in decimal degrees.
* longitude [Column C, numeric]: longitude of species occurrence in decimal degrees.
* datasource [Column D, categorical]: source of coordinates of species occurrence; levels: BIEN (https://bien.nceas.ucsb.edu/bien/), GBIF (https://www.gbif.org/).
* “UCBG_122spp_list.csv” contains information about species taxonomic classification, growth form, and evolutionary distinctiveness. Also contains information about each specimen’s location in the UCBG botanical garden.VARIABLES
* spp_code [Column A, categorical]: species code, comprising the first three letters of the genus and the first three letters of the species name.
* spp_name_ucbg [Column B, character]: plant species names according to the UCBG species list.
* spp_name_WP [Column C, character]: plant species name standardized according to the World Plants database (https://www.worldplants.de).
* canonical_author [Column D, character]: canonical author of the species according to World Plants database (https://www.worldplants.de).
* genus_WP [Column E, character]: plant species genus standardized according to the World Plants database (https://www.worldplants.de).
* family_WP [Column E, character]: plant family name standardized according to the World Plants database (https://www.worldplants.de).
* order_apg4 [Column F, character]: plant order according to the APG IV classification (http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/).
* clade [Column G, categorical]: plant clade name according to the APG IV classification (http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/); levels: ferns, basal angiosperms, monocots, basal eudicots, rosids, and asterids.
* sampling_date_YYYYMMDD [Column H, character]: date of species collection using the year (YYYY), month (MM) and date (DD) format.
* collectors [Column I, character]: first name of people responsible for species sampling/collection.
* accession_number [Column J, numeric]: accession number for the individuals sampled at the UCBG.
* ucbg_bed [Column K, alphanumeric]: bed number at the UCBG where the plant was collected from.
* ucbg_area [Column L, character]: area at the UCBG where the plant was collected from.
* growth_form [Column M, categorical]: species growth form; Levels: aquatic, climbing, herb, shrub, tree.
* evol_distinct [Column N, numeric]: species value for evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) calculated using the equal splits (Redding & Mooers, 2006) method as implemented in the ‘evol.distinct’ function from the ‘picante’ Rpackage (Kembel et al., 2010). Summary stats: Mean = 0.0883, Median = 0.1065, Max = 0.5725, Min = 0.0095, sd = 0.0928, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 4.
* Subfolder LeafVeinCNN [57 Files, 12 Folders, 4.48 GB] contains three newer versions ofLeafVeinCNN in mlappinstall format. Three folders (1) “second_CNN_models” which contains the second set of new CNN models ensemble described in this study; (2) “third_CNN_models” which contains the third set of CNN models ensemble described in this study; and (3) “training_images” which contains 48 PNG files representing the original images, the leaf masks, and the handtraces for all leaf samples used to train the new CNN models.
* Subfolder datasheets [3 Files, 0 Folders, 231 KB] contains three portable network graphic (PNG) files with datasheets used to record information for the measurement of mechanical (“UTM_datasheet.png”), hydraulic (“EFM_datasheet.png”), and economic traits (“Economic_datasheet.png”).
* Subfolder Rscripts [10 Files, 0 Folders, 108 KB] contains five Rscripts (available in both txt and R file (.R) format) with code to (1) “UCBG_venation_spp_Rcode.R” obtain and plot the phylogenetic tree for the 122 plant species, calculate their evolutionary distinctiveness, and extract the species occurrence coordinates from the BIEN database; (2) “UCBG_venation_mechanics_Rcode.R” plot the forcedisplacement curves for the bending, punching and shearing tests, and calculate all mechanical traits; (3) “UCBG_venation_kmax_Rcode.R” calculate Kleaf max; (4) “UCBG_venation_Dkleaf_Rcode.R” calculate ?Kleaf midrib and lamina; and (5) “UCBG_venation_VC_Rcode.R” plot the vulnerability curves and extract P50 and P88 values.
* Subfolder venation_function [4,890 Files, 283 Folders, 24.5 GB]:
* “UCBG_venation_function.csv” contains measurements of 32 functional traits (including mechanical, hydraulic, anatomical, physiological, economical, and chemical traits) that describe five main leaf functional axes (flow efficiency, damage resistance and resilience, mechanical support and construction cost) in 122 plant species.VARIABLES
* spp_code [Column A, categorical]: species code, comprising the first three letters of the genus and the first three letters of the species name.
* Economic traits
* leaf_area [Column B, numeric]: averaged onesided leaf area of a single leaf in m2 . Summary stats: Median = 13.75, Mean = 27.34, Max = 352.50, Min =0.24, sd = 41.83, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* SLA [Column C, numeric]: specific leaf area calculated by dividing the unit leaf area in m2 by the unit leaf dry mass in kg. Summary stats: Median = 11.02, Mean = 13.92, Max = 52.87, Min = 3.62, sd = 9.27, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* LMA [Column D, numeric]: leaf mass per area calculated by dividing the leaf dry mass in grams by the unit leaf area in m2 . Summary stats: Median = 90.73, Mean = 100.88, Max = 276.20, Min = 18.91, sd = 55.64, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* LDMC [Column E, numeric]: leaf dry mass content calculated by dividing leaf unit dry mass in mg by the unit leaf fresh mass in grams. Summary stats: Median = 333.18, Mean = 323.21, Max = 576.90, Min = 75.95, sd = 113.47, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotV [Column F, numeric]: total volume of veins in mm3. Summary stats: Median = 103.92, Mean = 26.98, Max = 2216.44, Min = 0.03, sd = 278.38, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Mechanical traits
* PS_M [Column G, numeric]: midrib punch strength in kN m2. Summary stats: Median = 27.73, Mean = 42.28, Max = 247.58, Min = 1.93, sd = 43.71, NA = 13, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PS_L [Column H, numeric]: leaf lamina punch strength in kN m2. Summary stats: Median = 12.62, Mean = 17.31, Max = 114.28, Min =1.32, sd = 17.52, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PSS_M [Column I, numeric]: midrib punch specific strength in kN m2 m1. Summary stats: Median = 66.33, Mean = 87.01, Max = 398.82, Min = 1.65, sd = 73.79, NA = 13, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PSS_L [Column J, numeric]: leaf lamina punch specific strength in kN m2 m1. Summary stats: Median = 53.28, Mean = 60.66, Max = 338.80, Min = 3.42, sd = 44.88, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* WP_M [Column K, numeric]: work to punch midrib in J m2. Summary stats: Median = 63.97, Mean = 119.72, Max = 763.87, Min = 3.18, sd = 138.12, NA = 13, Number of significant digits = 2.
* WP_L [Column L, numeric]: work to punch lamina in J m2. Summary stats: Median = 23.92, Mean = 38.59, Max = 247.48, Min = 2.17, sd = 44.97, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* SWP_M [Column M, numeric]: specific work to punch the leaf midrib in KJ m2 m1. Summary stats: Median = 170.27, Mean = 226.08, Max = 1,294.39, Min = 3.44, sd = 205.09, NA = 13, Number of significant digits = 2.
* SWP_L [Column N, numeric]: specific work to punch the leaf lamina in KJ m2 m1. Summary stats: Median = 106.33, Mean = 128.83, Max = 795.82, Min = 4.44, sd = 108.93, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* SS_M [Column O, numeric]: midrib shear strength in MN m2. Summary stats: Median = 2.14, Mean = 3.72, Max = 45.64, Min = 0.08, sd = 5.65, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* SS_L [Column P, numeric]: leaf lamina shear strength in MN m2. Summary stats: Median = 0.21, Mean = 0.39, Max = 3.32, Min = 0.01, sd = 0.57, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* WS_M [Column Q, numeric]: work to shear the midrib in J m1. Summary stats: Median = 0.48, Mean = 1.38, Max = 30.49, Min = 0.02, sd = 4.08, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* WS_L [Column R, numeric]: work to shear the leaf lamina in J m1. Summary stats: Median = 1.21, Mean = 1.92, Max = 22.14, Min = 0.03, sd = 2.61, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* SWS_M [Column S, numeric]: specific work to shear the leaf midrib in J m2. Summary stats: Median =692.31, Mean = 2,316.04, Max = 48,897.43, Min = 47.89, sd = 7,017.06, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* SWS_L [Column T, numeric]: specific work to shear the leaf lamina in J m2. Summary stats: Median = 5,015.50, Mean = 6,309.45, Max = 48,815.26, Min = 19.49, sd = 6,457.41, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* e_W [Column U, numeric]: flexural modulus of elasticity for the whole leaf in MN m2. Summary stats: Median = 5.34, Mean = 28.66, Max = 527.49, Min = 0.12, sd = 81.76, NA = 14, Number of significant digits = 2.
* e_L [Column V, numeric]: flexural modulus of elasticity for the leaf lamina in MN m2. Summary stats: Median = 20.88, Mean = 78.77, Max = 783.02, Min = 1.03, sd = 160.66, NA = 71, Number of significant digits = 2.
* E_W [Column W, numeric]: flexural stiffness of whole leaf in mN m2 m1. Summary stats: Median = 0.09, Mean = 1.05, Max = 23.99, Min = 0.007, sd = 3.55, NA = 14, Number of significant digits = 4.
* E_L [Column X, numeric]: flexural stiffness of leaf lamina in mN m2 m1. Summary stats: Median = 0.09, Mean = 0.36, Max = 3.34, Min = 0.01, sd = 0.69, NA = 71, Number of significant digits = 4.
* Hydraulic traits
* Kleaf_max [Column Y, numeric]: maximum leaf hydraulic conductance to water in mmol m2 s1 MPa1. Summary stats: Median = 2.93, Mean = 6.15, Max = 34.83, Min = 0.15, sd = 7.72, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* DKleaf_M [Column Z, numeric]: percentage change in leaf maximum hydraulic conductance after damaging the midrib. Summary stats: Median = 77.93, Mean = 56.58, Max = 414.25, Min = 99.93, sd = 68.10, NA = 3, Number of significant digits = 2.
* DKleaf_L [Column AA, numeric]: percentage change in leaf maximum hydraulic conductance after damaging the leaf lamina. Summary stats: Median = 82.62, Mean = 53.31, Max = 292.20, Min = 99.73, sd = 72.09, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* P50 [Column AB, numeric]: water potential inducing 50% decrease in leaf hydraulic conductance in MPa. Summary stats: Median = 0.58, Mean = 0.88, Max = 2.62, Min = 0.16, sd = 0.68, NA = 90, Number of significant digits = 2.
* P88 [Column AC, numeric]: water potential inducing 88% decrease in leaf hydraulic conductance in MPa. Summary stats: Median = 1.77, Mean = 2.16, Max = 6.87, Min = 0.51, sd = 1.39, NA = 90, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Anatomical traits
* ISI [Column AD, numeric]: implosion safety index, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.34, Mean = 0.36, Max = 0.83, Min = 0.09, sd = 0.12, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Gas exchange traits
* gsw_max [Column AE, numeric]: maximum leaf stomatal conductance to water vapor in mmol m⁻² s1. Summary stats: Median = 56.23, Mean = 85.32, Max = 634.27, Min = 6.39, sd = 108.17, NA = 88, Number of significant digits = 2.
* A_max [Column AF, numeric]: maximum leaf assimilation rate in μmol m⁻² s1. Summary stats: Median = 5.45, Mean = 6.59, Max = 26.75, Min = 0.83, sd = 4.57, NA = 88, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Chemical traits
* Phe [Column AG, numeric]: total phenols in g g1. Summary stats: Median = 3.68, Mean = 3.75, Max = 7.54, Min = 0.41, sd = 2.03, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* “UCBG_venation_anatomy.csv” contains 7,113 anatomical measurements of xylem conduits (tracheids or vessels) sizes (lumen minimum and maximum diameters, and cell doublewall thickness) in 122 plant species.
* spp_code [Column A, categorical]: species code, comprising the first three letters of the genus and the first three letters of the species name.
* conduit_Dmax [Column B, numeric]: maximum xylem conduit lumen diameter in micrometers. Summary stats: Median = 6.91, Mean = 8.50, Max = 80.28, Min = 1.21, sd = 5.57, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 4.
* conduit_Dmin [Column C, numeric]: minimum xylem conduit lumen diameter in micrometers. Summary stats: Median = 4.84, Mean = 6.08, Max = 71.40, Min = 0.65, sd = 4.30, NA = 466, Number of significant digits = 4.
* conduit_T [Column D, numeric]: xylem conduit doublewall thickness in micrometers. Summary stats: Median = 2.28, Mean = 2.38, Max = 7.95, Min = 0.46, sd = 0.79, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 4.
* vein_order [Column E, categorical]: whether the xylem conduit was measured from an image of a minor, medium, or major (petiole or midrib) vein. levels: minor, medium, major, NA.
* ISI [Column F, numeric]: implosion safety index, dimensionless.
* “UCBG_venation_mechanics.csv” contains 466 leaf size measurements (thickness, width, length) used for the calculation of leaf mechanical traits.
* spp_code [Column A, categorical]: species code, comprising the first three letters of the genus and the first three letters of the species name.
* date_YYYYMMDD [Column B, character]: date of measurement in the format year (YYYY), month (MM), and day (DD).
* rep [Column C, numeric]: leaf replicate, 34 replicates per species for each mechanical test (bending, shearing, punching).
* punch_thickness [Column D, numeric]: leaf thickness at the punch site measured with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.31, Mean = 0.41, Max = 3.56, Min = 0.08, sd = 0.33, NA = 4, Number of significant digits = 2.
* punch_site [Column E, categorical]: part of the leaf (midrib or lamina) where the punch test was performed; levels: midrib, lamina, NA.
* shear_thickness_midrib [Column F, numeric]: leaf midrib thickness at the shearing point measured with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.62, Mean = 0.72, Max = 2.80, Min = 0.10, sd = 0.42, NA = 103, Number of significant digits = 2.
* shear_width_midrib [Column G, numeric]: leaf midrib width at the shearing point measured with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.80, Mean = 1.45, Max = 40.06, Min = 0.17, sd = 3.80, NA = 106, Number of significant digits = 2.
* shear_thickness_lamina [Column H, numeric]: leaf lamina thickness at the shearing point measured with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.27, Mean = 0.43, Max = 16.77, Min = 0.07, sd = 6.22, NA = 104, Number of significant digits = 2.
* shear_width_lamina [Column I, numeric]: leaf lamina width at the shearing point measured with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 11.86, Mean = 12.25, Max = 44.08, Min = 0.35, sd = 6.22, NA = 104, Number of significant digits = 2.
* bending_span_whole [Column J, numeric]: span length between anvils measured in cm during the bending test using the whole leaf .
* bending_thickness_whole [Column K, numeric]: wholeleaf thickness measured at the bending point with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 11.86, Mean = 12.25, Max = 44.08, Min = 0.35, sd = 6.22, NA = 104, Number of significant digits = 2.
* bending_width_whole [Column L, numeric]: wholeleaf width measured at the bending point with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 28.77, Mean = 33.24, Max = 182.00, Min = 0.75, sd = 25.18, NA = 115, Number of significant digits = 2.
* bending_span_lamina [Column M, numeric]: span length between anvils measured in cm during the bending test using the leaf lamina.
* bending_thickness_lamina [Column N, numeric]: leaf lamina thickness measured at the bending point with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.36, Mean = 0.55, Max = 8.37, Min = 0.11, sd = 0.93, NA = 260, Number of significant digits = 2.
* bending_width_lamina [Column O, numeric]: leaf lamina width measured at the bending point with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 16.12, Mean = 18.51, Max = 64.51, Min = 0.16, sd = 12.04, NA = 260, Number of significant digits = 2.
* 1. Subfolder anatomy_photos [828 Files, 122 Folders, 11.3 GB]: contains a metadata file (“UCBG_anatomy_photos_metadata.csv”) and 122 subfolders named after the Spp_code of each plant species. Inside each species subfolder there are 68 leaf crosssectional microscopic photos saved in Tag Image File Format (TIFF).
* “UCBG_anatomy_photos_metadata.csv” contains information about the objective (20x, 40x, 100x) at which each photo was taken and the size of the scale (10 ?m, 100 ?m, 1mm) printed in each photo.
* photo_file_name [Column A, numeric]: file names of the leaf crosssections microscopical photos.
* spp_code [Column B, categorical]: species code, comprising the first three letters of the genus and the first three letters of the species name.
* objective [Column C, categorical]: objective (20x, 40x, 100x) at which photo was taken; levels: 20, 40, 100.
* scale_value [Column D, categorical]: value of scale printed in the photo; levels:1, 10, 100.
* scale_unit [Column E, categorical]: unit of the scale printed in the photo; levels: micrometer, millimeter.
* OBS [Column F, character]: observations about the photo.
2. Subfolder force_displacement_curves [3,916 Files, 122 Folders, 13.2 GB]: contains 122 subfolders named after the Spp_code of each plant species. Inside each species subfolder there are (1) three image TIFF files showing the bend (“Spp_code_Bend_plot.tiff”), punch (“Spp_code_Punch_plot.tiff”), and shear (“Spp_code_Shear_plot.tiff”) forcedisplacement curves for each of the 34 leaf replicates per species; (2) 1232 files in text format (LOG) containing the original force and displacement values recorded during the bending (force to bend lamina replicate number # “Spp_code_BFL#.log”, force to bend wholeleaf  “Spp_code_BFW#.log”, travel distance during bending lamina test “Spp_code_BTL#.log”, travel distance during bending wholeleaf test  “Spp_code_BTW#.log”), punching (force to punch lamina or midrib  “Spp_code_PT#.log”, travel distance during punch test “Spp_code_ST#.log”), and shearing tests (force to shear lamina or midrib “Spp_code_SF#.log”, travel distance during shear test “Spp_code_ST#.log”); (3) three CSV files with the force and displacement interpolated values used to produce the bending (“Bend_interpol_Spp_code.csv”), punching (“Punch_interpol_Spp_code.csv”), and shearing (“Shear_interpol_Spp_code.csv”) forcedisplacement curves; (4) three CSV files with bending (“Bend_results_Spp_code.csv”), punching (“Punch_results_Spp_code.csv”), and shearing (“Shear_results_Spp_code.csv”) traits calculated from the forcedisplacement curves.“Shear_interpol_Spp_code.csv” [data frame: 8 columns x variable number of rows]
* Time [Column A, numeric]: time at which the force measurements were taken.
* Force [Column B, numeric]: force to shear registered by the force gauge in Newtons. Summary stats: Median = 0.16, Mean = 0.5193, Max = 33.06, Min = 0, sd = 1.2541, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2
* rep [Column C, categorical]: leaf replicate; levels: 1, 2, 3, 4, NA.
* pred_dist [Column D, numeric]: interpolated distances registered by the travel display in millimeters. Summary stats: Median = 8.4864, Mean = 8.892, Max = 31.708, Min = 1.3229, sd = 6.0437, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.“Punch_interpol_Spp_code.csv” [data frame: 8 columns x variable number of rows
* Time [Column A, numeric]: time at which the force measurements were taken.Time [Column A, numeric]: time at which the force measurements were taken.
* Force [Column B, numeric]: force to punch registered by the force gauge in Newtons. Summary stats: Median = 0.06, Mean = 0.3637, Max = 26.96, Min = 0, sd = 1.256, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* rep [Column C, categorical]: leaf replicate; levels: 1, 2, 3, 4, NA.
* pred_dist [Column D, numeric]: interpolated distances registered by the travel display in millimeters. Summary stats: Median = 5.0279, Mean = 5.4851, Max = 20.8889, Min = 1.0105, sd = 4.026, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.“Bend_interpol_ Spp_code.csv” [data frame: 8 columns x variable number of rows]
* Time [Column A, numeric]: time at which the force measurements were taken.
* Force [Column B, numeric]: force to bend registered by the force gauge in Newtons. Summary stats: Median = 0.03, Mean = 0.1219, Max = 11.475, Min = 0, sd = 0.5215, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* rep [Column C, categorical]: leaf replicate; levels: 1, 2, 3, 4, NA.
* pred_dist [Column D, numeric]: interpolated distances registered by the travel display in millimeters. Summary stats: Median = 14.9113, Mean = 16.1255, Max = 65.3547, Min = 1.1137, sd = 11.1383, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2“Punch_results_Spp_code.csv [data frame: 24 columns x 4 row
* spp_code [Column A, categorical]: species code, comprising the first three letters of the genus and the first three letters of the species name.
* date_YYYYMMDD [Column B, character]: date of measurement in the format year (YYYY), month (DD), and day (DD).
* name [Column C, character]: first letter of name and surname of researchers responsible for calculating the bend mechanical traits.
* place [Column D, character]: place where measurements were performed.
* rep [Column E, categorical]: leaf replicate; levels: 1, 2, 3, 4, NA.
* P_Lth_mm [Column F, numeric]: leaf thickness at the punch site measured with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.31, Mean = 0.41, Max = 3.56, Min = 0.08, sd = 0.33, NA = 4, Number of significant digits = 2.
* P_site [Column G, categorical]: part of the leaf (midrib or lamina) where the punch test was performed; levels: midrib, lamina, NA.
* S_LthM_mm [Column H, numeric]: leaf midrib thickness at the shearing point measured with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.27, Mean = 0.43, Max = 16.77, Min = 0.07, sd = 6.22, NA = 104, Number of significant digits = 2.
* S_WM_mm [Column I, numeric]: leaf midrib width at the shearing point measured with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.80, Mean = 1.45, Max = 40.06, Min = 0.17, sd = 3.80, NA = 106, Number of significant digits = 2.
* S_LthL_mm [Column J, numeric]: leaf lamina thickness at the shearing point measured with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.27, Mean = 0.43, Max = 16.77, Min = 0.07, sd = 6.22, NA = 104, Number of significant digits = 2.
* S_WL_mm [Column K, numeric]: leaf lamina width at the shearing point measured with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 11.86, Mean = 12.25, Max = 44.08, Min = 0.35, sd = 6.22, NA = 104, Number of significant digits = 2.
* B_SW_cm [Column L, numeric]: span length between anvils measured in cm during the bending test using the whole leaf.
* B_LthW_mm [Column M, numeric]: wholeleaf thickness measured at the bending point with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 11.86, Mean = 12.25, Max = 44.08, Min = 0.35, sd = 6.22, NA = 104, Number of significant digits = 2.
* B_WW_mm [Column N, numeric]: wholeleaf width measured at the bending point with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 28.77, Mean = 33.24, Max = 182.00, Min = 0.75, sd = 25.18, NA = 115, Number of significant digits = 2.
* B_SL_cm [Column O, numeric]: span length between anvils measured in cm during the bending test using the leaf lamina.
* B_LthL_mm [Column P, numeric]: leaf lamina thickness measured at the bending point with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.36, Mean = 0.55, Max = 8.37, Min = 0.11, sd = 0.93, NA = 260, Number of significant digits = 2.
* B_WL_mm [Column Q, numeric]: leaf lamina width measured at the bending point with a caliper in mm. Summary stats: Median = 16.12, Mean = 18.51, Max = 64.51, Min = 0.16, sd = 12.04, NA = 260, Number of significant digits = 2.
* obs [Column R, character]: observations.
* f_max [Column S, numeric]: maximum value of force in N extracted from the forcedisplacement curves. Summary stats: Median = 1.6523, Mean = 2.7085, Max = 27.2027, Min = 0.005, sd = 3.3871, NA = 19, Number of significant digits = 2.
* dis [Column T, numeric]: displacement in mm extracted from the forcedisplacement curves. Summary stats: Median = 2.2378, Mean = 2.3096, Max = 5.3481, Min = 0.0892, sd = 0.7308, NA = 20, Number of significant digits = 2.
* P_strength [Column U, numeric]: punch strength in KNm2. Summary stats: Median = 17.3958, Mean = 28.5164, Max = 286.4048, Min = 0.0524, sd = 35.6614, NA = 19, Number of significant digits = 2.
* P_spec_strength [Column V, numeric]: specific punch strength in MN m2 m1. Summary stats: Median = 57.3392, Mean = 73.1876, Max = 440.6227, Min = 0.3275, sd = 65.2749, NA = 19, Number of significant digits = 2.
* P_work [Column W, numeric]: work to punch in J m2. Summary stats: Median = 37.0518, Mean = 73.2826, Max = 787.2485, Min = 1.4961, sd = 108.0868, NA = 20, Number of significant digits = 2.
* P_spec_work [Column X, numeric]: specific work to punch in KJ m2 m1. Summary stats: Median = 130.358, Mean = 173.1792, Max = 1312.0809, Min = 3.0433, sd = 177.6848, NA = 20, Number of significant digits = 2.“Shear_results_Spp_code.csv” [data frame: 30 columns x 4 rows]
Columns A to R as above
* f_maxM [Column S, numeric]: maximum value of force in N extracted from the forcedisplacement curves for the leaf midrib. Summary stats: Median = 1.1225, Mean = 1.7052, Max = 33.2327, Min = 0.0452, sd = 2.4978, NA = 115, Number of significant digits = 2
* disM [Column T, numeric]: displacement in mm extracted from the forcedisplacement curves for the leaf midrib. Summary stats: Median = 2.2321, Mean = 2.4709, Max = 10.0567, Min = 1.5548, sd = 1.3027, NA = 121, Number of significant digits = 2
* f_maxL [Column U, numeric]: maximum value of force in N extracted from the forcedisplacement curves for the leaf lamina. Summary stats: Median = 0.6005, Mean = 1.1324, Max = 14.8545, Min = 0.0254, sd = 1.8017, NA = 119, Number of significant digits = 2
* disL [Column V, numeric]: displacement in mm extracted from the Forcedisplacement curves for the leaf lamina. Summary stats: Median = 6.1122, Mean = 6.3865, Max = 13.6294, Min = 1.1071, sd = 3.06, NA = 120, Number of significant digits = 2
* CM [Column W, numeric]: crosssectional area of shear for the midrib in m2. Summary stats: Median = 5.196e07, Mean = 0.0034, Max = 0.5372, Min = 3e08, sd = 0.0389, NA = 104, Number of significant digits = 4
* CL [Column X, numeric]: crosssectional area of shear for the lamina in m2. Summary stats: Median = 3.1744e06, Mean = 0.0254, Max = 3.3165, Min = 2.156e07, sd = 0.2814, NA = 101, Number of significant digits = 2
* S_strength_M [Column Y, numeric]: shear strength for the midrib in MN m2. Summary stats: Median = 3.6565, Mean = 6.2507, Max = 45.0959, Min = 0.145, sd = 8.8734, NA = 23, Number of significant digits = 2
* S_strength_L [Column Z, numeric]: shear strength for the lamina in MN m2. Summary stats: Median = 0.1977, Mean = 0.3467, Max = 1.9568, Min = 0.0074, sd = 0.3926, NA = 23, Number of significant digits = 2
* S_work_M [Column AA, numeric]: work to shear for the midrib in J m1. Summary stats: Median = 0.5653, Mean = 0.9285, Max = 6.6107, Min = 0.029, sd = 1.2151, NA = 28, Number of significant digits = 4
* S_work_L [Column AB, numeric]: work to shear for the lamina in J m1. Summary stats: Median = 1.5383, Mean = 2.0991, Max = 15.3088, Min = 0.0944, sd = 2.1875, NA = 23, Number of significant digits = 4
* S_spec_work_M [Column AC, numeric]: specific work to shear for the midrib in KJ m2. Summary stats: Median = 0.8278, Mean = 1.4338, Max = 8.1613, Min = 0.0571, sd = 1.5434, NA = 28, Number of significant digits = 4.
* S_spec_work_L [Column AD, numeric]: specific work to shear for the lamina in KJ m2. Summary stats: Median = 5.978, Mean = 7.0316, Max = 51.0293, Min = 0.2098, sd = 6.8042, NA = 23, Number of significant digits = 2.“Bend_results_Spp_code.csv” [data frame: 28 columns x 4 rows]
Columns A to R as above f_maxW [Column S, numeric]: maximum value of force in N for the whole leaf. Summary stats: Median = 0.0906, Mean = 0.2932, Max = 11.4864, Min = 0.004, sd = 0.9224, NA = 104, Number of significant digits = 4
* disW [Column T, numeric]: displacement in mm for the whole leaf. Summary stats: Median = 24.7312, Mean = 25.4615, Max = 55.6021, Min = 5.7524, sd = 8.3848, NA = 104, Number of significant digits = 2
* f_maxL [Column U, numeric]: maximum value of force in N for the lamina. Summary stats: Median = 0.0552, Mean = 0.1354, Max = 1.7155, Min = 0.0046, sd = 0.2691, NA = 288, Number of significant digits = 4
* disL [Column V, numeric]: displacement in mm for the lamina. Summary stats: Median = 21.209, Mean = 21.1136, Max = 46.8127, Min = 5.8544, sd = 7.1717, NA = 291, Number of significant digits = 2
* IW [Column W, numeric]: second moment of area for the whole leaf. Summary stats: Median = 4.223e13, Mean = 2.2354e06, Max = 0.0004, Min = 1.772e15, sd = 2.771e05, NA = 88, Number of significant digits = 1
* IL [Column X, numeric]: second moment of area for the lamina. Summary stats: Median = 5.2538e14, Mean = 8.0616e07, Max = 0.00011, Min = 1.7467e15, sd = 8.1438e06, NA = 227, Number of significant digits = 15
* FEW [Column Y, numeric]: flexural modulus of elasticity for the whole leaf in MN m2. SSummary stats: Median = 4.4088, Mean = 28.1437, Max = 709.6196, Min = 0, sd = 85.6381, NA = 104, Number of significant digits = 2
* FEL [Column Z, numeric]: flexural modulus of elasticity for the lamina in MN m2. Summary stats: Median = 20.8143, Mean = 87.8293, Max = 1418.4449, Min = 5e04, sd = 203.7247, NA = 292, Number of significant digits = 2
* FSW [Column AA, numeric]: flexural stiffness for the whole leaf in mN m2 m1. Summary stats: Median = 0.0751, Mean = 1.0251, Max = 28.1787, Min = 0.0012, sd = 3.7037, NA = 104, Number of significant digits = 4
* FSL [Column AB, numeric]: flexural stiffness for the lamina in mN m2 m1. Summary stats: Median = 0.0831, Mean = 0.3669, Max = 5.1726, Min = 0.0011, sd = 0.7266, NA = 292, Number of significant digits = 4Subfolder LICOR_logs [109 Files, 34 Folders, 1.06 MB]: contains a metadata file (“UCBG_LICOR_logs_metadata.csv”) and 34 subfolders named after the Spp_code of each plant species. Inside each species subfolder there are 34 CSV files with the LICOR outputs (“YYYYMMDDHHMM_Spp_code#.csv”) for each leaf replicate.
* “UCBG_LICOR_logs_metadata.csv” contains information about the time when measurements were conducted and whether the measurements were corrected for leaf area or not.
* spp_code [Column A, categorical]: species code, comprising the first three letters of the genus and the first three letters of the species name.
* accession_number [Column B, numeric]: accession number for the individuals sampled at the UCBG.
* date_YYYYMMDD [Column C, character]: date of measurement in the format year (YYYY), month (MM), and day (DD).
* time [column D, character]: time of measurement in hour: minutes format.
* name [Column E, character]: name and surname of researchers responsible for the measurements.
* rep [Column F, categorical]: leaf replicate; levels: 1, 2, 3, 4, NA.
* leaf_area_corrected [Column G, categorical]: were the measurements corrected for the leaf area?; Levels: yes, no
* leaf_area [Column H, numeric]: leaf area in cm2. Summary stats: Median = 6.08, Mean = 6.14, Max = 9, Min = 2.26, sd = 1.81, NA = 54, Number of significant digits = 2.“YYYYMMDDHHMM_Spp_code1#.csv” [data frame: 104 columns x 1020 rows
* obs [Column A, character]: measurement number
* time [Column B, numeric]: seconds since Jan 1970
* elapsed [Column C, numeric]: elapsed time in seconds
* date [Column D, numeric]: date of measurement in year (YYYY), month (MM), and day (DD) format
* hhmmss [Column E, numeric]: hour of measurement in hh:mm:ss format.
* Leaf type [Column F, categorical]: leaf type identifier.
* E [Column G, numeric]: transpiration rate in mol m2 s1. Summary stats: Median = 0.0009, Mean = 0.0013, Max = 0.0588, Min = 3.76e05, sd = 0.0022, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 4.
* A [Column H, numeric]: assimilation rate in µmol m2 s1. Summary stats: Median = 5.2504, Mean = 6.6552, Max = 66.0245, Min = 25.9526, sd = 6.4673, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Ca [Column I, numeric]: ambient (to leaf) CO₂ in µmol mol1. Summary stats: Median = 419.9337, Mean = 419.869, Max = 535.1776, Min = 392.3941, sd = 7.5352, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Ci [Column J, numeric]: intercellular CO₂ in µmol mol1. Summary stats: Median = 260.8631, Mean = 238.8525, Max = 923.7966, Min = 715.12, sd = 111.9444, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Pci [Column K, numeric]: intercellular CO₂ in Pa. Summary stats: Median = 26.0226, Mean = 23.818, Max = 91.4619, Min = 70.8019, sd = 11.1368, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Pca [Column L, numeric]: ambient (to leaf) CO₂ in Pa. Summary stats: Median = 41.8689, Mean = 41.862, Max = 52.9862, Min = 38.8489, sd = 0.7511, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* gsw [Column M, numeric]: stomatal conductance to water vapor in mol m2 s1. Summary stats: Median = 0.0575, Mean = 0.0876, Max = 3.7876, Min = 0.0024, sd = 0.1572, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 4.
* gbw [Column N, numeric]: boundary layer conductance to water vapor in mol m2 s1. Summary stats: Median = 2.3887, Mean = 2.2173, Max = 3.8663, Min = 1.1415, sd = 0.7013, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* gtw [Column O, numeric]: total conductance to water vapor in mol m2 s1. Summary stats: Median = 0.0566, Mean = 0.0779, Max = 0.5102, Min = 0.0024, sd = 0.0844, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 4.
* gtc [Column P, numeric]: total conductance to CO₂ in mol m2 s1. Summary stats: Median = 0.0355, Mean = 0.0492, Max = 0.3302, Min = 0.0015, sd = 0.0543, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 4.
* Rabs [Column Q, numeric]: absorbed shortwave radiation in W m2. Summary stats: Median = 190.1807, Mean = 190.1806, Max = 190.1821, Min = 190.1787, sd = 5e04, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* TleafEB [Column R, numeric]: leaf temperature from energy balance in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 25.0696, Mean = 25.1037, Max = 26.4205, Min = 23.9532, sd = 0.3442, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* TleafCnd [Column S, numeric]: leaf temperature used for gas exchange computations in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 25.0347, Mean = 25.0268, Max = 25.266, Min = 24.6163, sd = 0.1036, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* SVPleaf [Column T, numeric]: saturation vapor pressure at leaf temp in kPa. Summary stats: Median = 3.1863, Mean = 3.1848, Max = 3.2305, Min = 3.1077, sd = 0.0196, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* RHcham [Column U, numeric]: relative humidity in the chamber in %. Summary stats: Median = 56.3564, Mean = 55.2351, Max = 61.3111, Min = 30.9107, sd = 5.0704, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VPcham [Column V, numeric]: vapor pressure in the chamber in kPa. Summary stats: Median = 1.6861, Mean = 1.6529, Max = 1.8448, Min = 0.941, sd = 0.1397, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 4.
* SVPcham [Column W, numeric]: saturation vapor pressure in the chamber in kPa. Summary stats: Median = 2.9961, Mean = 2.9966, Max = 3.6199, Min = 2.77, sd = 0.1078, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 4.
* VPDleaf [Column X, numeric]: vapor pressure deficit at leaf temp in kPa. Summary stats: Median = 1.5023, Mean = 1.5319, Max = 2.2647, Min = 1.3329, sd = 0.1422, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 4.
* LatHFlux [Column Y, numeric]: latent heat flux in W m2. Summary stats: Median = 38.8889, Mean = 54.1101, Max = 1.6585, Min = 349.0801, sd = 57.9178, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* SenHFlux [Column Z, numeric]: sensible heat flux in W m2. Summary stats: Median = 125.5182, Mean = 119.6126, Max = 134.3259, Min = 236.6771, sd = 51.6832, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NetTherm [Column AA, numeric]: net thermal in W m2. Summary stats: Median = 11.652, Mean = 11.6353, Max = 25.1148, Min = 25.1492, sd = 6.5496, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* EBSum [Column AB, numeric]: sum of energy balance components in W m2. Summary stats: Median = 5.5043, Mean = 4.8226, Max = 142.3815, Min = 91.3939, sd = 35.5821, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Leak [Column AF, numeric]: leakage from chamber in µmol s1. Summary stats: Median = 0, Mean = 12.0736, Max = 545, Min = 0, sd = 57.2963, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* LeakPct [Column AG, numeric]: leakage as percent of flow in %. Summary stats: Median = 0, Mean = 1.7183, Max = 78, Min = 0, sd = 8.202, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* CorrFact [Column AH, categorical]: leak correction factor; Levels: 1  corrected, 0  not corrected.
* CorrFactPct [Column AI, numeric]: leak correction factor as percent in %. Summary stats: Median = 0, Mean = 0, Max = 0, Min = 0, sd = 0, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Fan [Column AJ, numeric]: estimated mixing fan flow in µmol s1. Summary stats: Median = 53115.8829, Mean = 41595.9537, Max = 53273.6766, Min = 13251.1943, sd = 18038.9677, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Qin [Column AK, numeric]: Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) incident on the leaf in µmol s1. Summary stats: Median = 1199.999, Mean = 1199.9989, Max = 1200.0081, Min = 1199.9865, sd = 0.0028, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Qabs [Column AL, numeric]: PPFD absorbed by the leaf in µmol s1. Summary stats: Median = 1011.5992, Mean = 1011.599, Max = 1011.6068, Min = 1011.5886, sd = 0.0023, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* alpha [Column AM, numeric]: weighted leaf absorption in s1. Summary stats: Median = 0.843, Mean = 0.843, Max = 0.843, Min = 0.843, sd = 0, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* convert [Column AN, numeric]: weighted conversion from PPFD to W/m2 in J/µmol. Summary stats: Median = 0.188, Mean = 0.188, Max = 0.188, Min = 0.188, sd = 0, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* S [Column AO, numeric]: the area of the chamber occupied by the leaf in cm2. Summary stats: Median = 9, Mean = 7.5072, Max = 9, Min = 2.2554, sd = 1.915, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* K [Column AP, categorical]: is the toptobottom ratio of stomata of the leaf; Levels: 1 = equal stomatal density on top and bottom; 0 = stomata on only one side. 0.5 = ratio not known.
* Geometry [Column AQ, categorical]: leaf geometry indicator; Levels: 0 = Broadleaf; 1 = needle; 2 = custom.
* TIME [Column AR, numeric]: seconds since Jan 1970.
* CO2_s [Column AS, numeric]: sample cell CO₂ concentration in µmol mol1. Summary stats: Median = 419.9338, Mean = 419.8692, Max = 535.1776, Min = 392.3941, sd = 7.5315, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* CO2_r [Column AT, numeric]: reference cell CO₂ concentration in µmol mol1. Summary stats: Median = 425.7356, Mean = 427.7271, Max = 583.6155, Min = 400.908, sd = 13.1316, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* H2O_s [Column AU, numeric]: sample cell H₂O concentration in mmol mol1. Summary stats: Median = 16.9109, Mean = 16.579, Max = 18.6332, Min = 9.4273, sd = 1.4059, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* H2O_r [Column AV, numeric]: reference cell H₂O concentration in mmol mol1. Summary stats: Median = 15.9637, Mean = 15.2627, Max = 17.5357, Min = 6.5592, sd = 2.2327, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Flow [Column AW, numeric]: flow rate into chamber in µmol s1. Summary stats: Median = 700.0039, Mean = 700.0041, Max = 700.0555, Min = 699.9725, sd = 0.0081, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Pa [Column AX, numeric]: atmospheric pressure in kPa. Summary stats: Median = 99.4912, Mean = 99.5055, Max = 99.7936, Min = 98.9039, sd = 0.1522, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* ΔPcham [Column AY, numeric]: chamber overpressure in kPa.
* Tair [Column AZ, numeric]: chamber air temperature in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 24.0064, Mean = 23.9998, Max = 27.1928, Min = 22.7064, sd = 0.58, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Tleaf [Column BA, numeric]: leaf thermocouple #1 in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 25.035, Mean = 25.0269, Max = 25.266, Min = 24.6163, sd = 0.1035, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Tleaf2 [Column BB, numeric]: leaf thermocouple #2 in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 999.9, Mean = 999.9, Max = 999.9, Min = 999.9, sd = 0, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Offset [Column BC, numeric]: offset builtin to Tleaf in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 0, Mean = 0, Max = 0, Min = 0, sd = 0, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Offset2 [Column BD, numeric]: offset builtin to Tleaf2 in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 0, Mean = 0, Max = 0, Min = 0, sd = 0, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Fan_speed [Column BE, numeric]: chamber fan rotation rate in rpm. Summary stats: Median = 9997.2587, Mean = 7966.6467, Max = 10012.961, Min = 2997.499, sd = 3178.913, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Qamb_in [Column BF, numeric]: inchamber ambient PPFD in µmol m2 s1. Summary stats: Median = 311.4876, Mean = 311.5233, Max = 326.7356, Min = 295.7549, sd = 7.1157, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Qamb_out [Column BG, numeric]: external ambient PPFD in µmol m2 s1. Summary stats: Median = 39.1987, Mean = 164.5906, Max = 1197.6097, Min = 4.0951, sd = 268.5889, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Q [Column BH, numeric]: light Source output in µmol m2 s1. Summary stats: Median = 1199.999, Mean = 1199.9989, Max = 1200.0081, Min = 1199.9865, sd = 0.0028, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* f_red [Column BI, numeric]: fraction red. Summary stats: Median = 0.9, Mean = 0.9, Max = 0.9, Min = 0.9, sd = 0, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* f_blue [Column BJ, numeric]: fraction blue. Summary stats: Median = 0.1, Mean = 0.1, Max = 0.1, Min = 0.1, sd = 0, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Tled [Column BK, numeric]: LED tile temperature in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 22, Mean = 21.9784, Max = 27, Min = 18, sd = 2.3239, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Pc [Column BL, numeric]: photodiode count. Summary stats: Median = 19706.6419, Mean = 19706.6408, Max = 19706.8064, Min = 19706.4419, sd = 0.0466, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* time [Column BM, numeric]: time of last match (Seconds since Jan 1970)
* hhmmss [Column BN, numeric]: time of last match.
* count [Column BO, numeric]: match count number.
* co2_adj [Column BP, numeric]: prematch error: CO2_r  CO2_s at last match in µmol/mol. Summary stats: Median = 0.249, Mean = 0.2491, Max = 0.482, Min = 0, sd = 0.1097, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 4.
* h2o_adj [Column BQ, numeric]: prematch error: H2O_r  H2O_s at last match in mmol/mol. Summary stats: Median = 0.129, Mean = 0.1248, Max = 0.266, Min = 0, sd = 0.044, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 4.
* co2_at [Column BR, numeric]: CO₂ at the last match in µmol/mol. Summary stats: Median = 420, Mean = 404.5431, Max = 435, Min = 0, sd = 81.3618, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* h2o_at [Column BS, numeric]: H₂O at the last match in mmol/mol. Summary stats: Median = 16, Mean = 15.6108, Max = 18, Min = 0, sd = 3.268, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* co2_cv [Column BT, numeric]: coefficient of variation of last CO₂ match in %. Summary stats: Median = 0.32, Mean = 0.3142, Max = 0.63, Min = 0, sd = 0.1634, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* h2o_cv [Column BU, numeric]: coefficient of variation of last H₂O match in %. Summary stats: Median = 0.13, Mean = 0.1345, Max = 0.28, Min = 0, sd = 0.0719, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* A:MN [Column BV, numeric]: mean of A in µmol m2 s1.
* A:SLP [Column BX, numeric]: rate of change of A in µmol m2 s1 min1.
* A:SD [Column BW, numeric]: standard deviation of A in µmol m2 s1.
* A:OK [Column BY, numeric]: stable status of A in s1.
* gsw:MN [Column BZ, numeric]: mean of gsw in mol m2 s1.
* gsw:SLP [Column CA, numeric]: rate of change of gsw in mol m2 s1 min1.
* gsw:SD [Column CB, numeric]: standard deviation of gsw in mol m2 s1.
* gsw:OK [Column CC, numeric]: stable status of gsw.
* Stable [Column CD, numeric]: number of stable items.
* Total [Column CE, numeric]: number of items tracked.
* State [Column CF, numeric]: stable # / total #.
* MatchValveR [Column CG, numeric]: reference match valve position in %.
* MatchValveS [Column CH, numeric]: sample match valve position in %.
* MatchCO2 [Column CI, numeric]: CO₂ Match adjustment value in µmol/mol.
* MatchH2O [Column CJ, numeric]: H₂O Match adjustment value in µmol/mol.
* DIAG [Column CK, categorical]: head diagnostic value. levels: Not normal = 0 or 1, Normal = 2 or 3.
* Flow_s [Column CL, numeric]: sample cell flow in µmol s1. Summary stats: Median = 778.431, Mean = 760.7835, Max = 786.609, Min = 135.832, sd = 70.5707, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Flow_r [Column CM, numeric]: reference cell flow in µmol s1. Summary stats: Median = 632.107, Mean = 625.3745, Max = 672.622, Min = 569.096, sd = 24.7426, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Txchg [Column CN, numeric]: heat exchanger temperature in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 27.499, Mean = 27.4204, Max = 34.8499, Min = 20.7811, sd = 2.8373, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Tirga [Column CO, numeric]: IRGA block temperature in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 22.1163, Mean = 22.1605, Max = 26.8815, Min = 17.9846, sd = 1.9835, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Tchopper [Column CP, numeric]: IRGA chopper temperature in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 30.0001, Mean = 30.0001, Max = 30.0077, Min = 29.9909, sd = 0.0014, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Ts [Column CQ, numeric]: A cell inlet temperature in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 21.9637, Mean = 21.9262, Max = 26.5125, Min = 17.5947, sd = 2.0048, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Tr [Column CR, numeric]: B cell inlet temperature in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 21.9339, Mean = 21.8873, Max = 26.4598, Min = 17.4541, sd = 2.0097, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* CO2_% [Column CS, numeric]: CO₂ injector amount on in %.
* Desiccant_% [Column CT, numeric]: desiccant valve position in %.
* Humidifier_% [Column CU, numeric]: humidifier valve position in %.
* Txchg_sp [Column CV, numeric]: heat exchange algorithmic setpoint in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 27.5501, Mean = 27.4646, Max = 34.8638, Min = 20.761, sd = 2.8067, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* CO2_r_sp [Column CX, numeric]: CO₂ mixer algorithmic setpoint in µmol mol1. Summary stats: Median = 426.269, Mean = 441.1957, Max = 887.347, Min = 420.168, sd = 78.7929, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* H2O_r_sp [Column CW, numeric]: H₂O algorithmic setpoint in mmol mol1. Summary stats: Median = 15.9437, Mean = 15.5908, Max = 34.819, Min = 6.6273, sd = 3.0559, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
* SS_s [Column CY, numeric]: sample cell signal strength in %. Summary stats: Median = 100.313, Mean = 100.2888, Max = 100.748, Min = 99.7212, sd = 0.253, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2
* SS_r [Column CZ, numeric]: reference cell signal strength in %. Summary stats: Median = 98.8199, Mean = 98.8358, Max = 99.6582, Min = 98.0388, sd = 0.3532, NA = 2, Number of significant digits = 2.
3. Subfolder hydraulics [35 Files, 1 Folder, 4.34 MB]: contains three metadata files: (1) “UCBG_venation_kmax.csv” contains information used to calculate Kleaf max for each of the 122 species; (2) “UCBG_venation_Dkleaf.csv” contains information used to calculate the ?Kleaf for midrib and lamina; (3) “UCBG_venation_VC.csv” contains information to plot the vulnerability curves. Inside the subfolder VC_figures there are 32 images in PNG format (“Spp_code_P50_final.png”) showing the vulnerability curve for each species. In each image the yellow and red lines indicate the P50 and P88 values, respectively; and the gray lines indicate the uncertainty around the vulnerability curve.“UCBG_venation_kmax.csv”** [data frame: 18 columns x 610 rows**
* date [Column A, numeric]: date of Kleaf measurement in year (YYYY), month (MM), and day (DD) format.
* name [Column B, character]: name and surname initials of person responsible for obtaining the Kleaf measurements.
* spp_code [Column C, categorical]: species code, comprising the first three letters of the genus and the first three letters of the species name.
* treat [Column D, categorical]: treatment (M  midrib, L  lamina, C  control) plus number of leaf replicate (1, 2, 3, 4).
* leaf_area [Column E, numeric]: oneside leaf area in cm2. Summary stats: Median = 17.6936, Mean = 30.9668, Max = 441.94, Min = 0.75, sd = 41.9615, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* P0 [Column F, numeric]: first measurement of leaf water potential in MPa before inserting leaf in the EFM system (measured with a pressure chamber). Summary stats: Median = 0.27, Mean = 0.479, Max = 3.9, Min = 0.01, sd = 0.5561, NA = 6, Number of significant digits = 2.
* P1 [Column G, numeric]: second measurement of leaf water potential in MPa. before inserting the leaf in the EFM system (measured with a pressure chamber). Summary stats: Median = 0.27, Mean = 0.4735, Max = 3.9, Min = 0.01, sd = 0.5473, NA = 21, Number of significant digits = 2.
* P2 [Column H, numeric]: third measurement of leaf water potential in MPa before inserting leaf in the EFM system (only taken if the two first measurements differ from more than 0.5 Mpa) (measured with a pressure chamber).
* Ptube [Column I, numeric]: PEEK tube pressure in MPa. Summary stats: Median = 0.27, Mean = 0.4081, Max = 2.6, Min = 0.05, sd = 0.3933, NA = 379, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Rtube [Column J, categorical]: code to indicate the type of PEEK Rtube used in the EFM system during the Kleaf measurement. The letter (R  red; Y  yellow; B  blue; O  orange) stands for the color of the PEEK Rtube, and the number indicates the length of the PEEK tubing in cm; Levels: B157; O158; R10.3; R10.3B; R10.3C; R10.3D; R24.7; R24.7B; R30; R30B; R40; R5; R7.5; R7.5B; R7.5C; Y103; Y103B; Y12; Y12B; Y15; Y16; Y23; Y23B; Y5; Y5B; Y8.5; Y8.5B.
* TempL [Column K, numeric]: leaf temperature at the end of the Kleaf *measurement determined with an infrared thermometer in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 28.75, Mean = 28.691, Max = 49, Min = 16.1, sd = 4.9438, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* **TempW [Column L, numeric]:* temperature of the water at the end of the EFM tubing systems (i.e. the tubing connected to the leaf petiole) at the end of the Kleaf *measurement determined with a thermocouple thermometer in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 27.4, Mean = 27.3113, Max = 39.4, Min = 15.3, sd = 4.235, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* **Pf [Column M, numeric]:* final leaf water potential in MPa measured with a pressure chamber. Summary stats: Median = 0.55, Mean = 0.7568, Max = 4.3, Min = 0.01, sd = 0.6962, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Rtubes [Column N, numeric]: PEEK tube known resistance in MPa s mmol1. Summary stats: Median = 0.2774, Mean = 0.75, Max = 2.8139, Min = 0.0229, sd = 0.8722, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Rtube_cor [Column O, numeric]: PEEK tube resistance corrected for temperature in MPa s mmol1. Summary stats: Median = 0.2674, Mean = 0.7202, Max = 3.0248, Min = 0.0201, sd = 0.8385, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Kleaf [Column P, numeric]: leaf hydraulic conductance in mmol s1 MPa1. Summary stats: Median = 0.0022, Mean = 0.0072, Max = 0.2386, Min = 0, sd = 0.0203, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Kleaftcor [Column Q, numeric]: leaf hydraulic conductance corrected for temperature in mmol s1 MPa1. Summary stats: Median = 0.002, Mean = 0.0066, Max = 0.2481, Min = 0, sd = 0.0197, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2
* Kleaf_area [Column Q, numeric]: leaf hydraulic conductance corrected for temperature and normalized by leaf area in mmol s1 m2 MPa1. Summary stats: Median = 1.2015, Mean = 2.9449, Max = 34.8306, Min = 0.007, sd = 4.8261, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.“UCBG_venation_Dkleaf.csv” [data frame: 18 columns x 1180 rows]
* date [Column A, numeric]: date of Kleaf *measurement in year (YYYY), month (MM), and day (DD) format
* **name [Column B, character]:* name and surname initials of person responsible for obtaining the Kleaf measurements.
* spp_code [Column C, categorical]: species code, comprising the first three letters of the genus and the first three letters of the species name.
* treat [Column D, categorical]: treatment; Levels: C#  control, L#  lamina, M#  midrib. # replicate number: 1, 2, 3, or 4.
* leaf_area [Column E, numeric]: oneside leaf area in cm2. Summary stats: Median = 18.6191, Mean = 30.9891, Max = 223.62, Min = 0.3171, sd = 36.9575, NA = 6, Number of significant digits = 2.
* P0 [Column F, numeric]: first measurement of leaf water potential in MPa before inserting leaf in the EFM system (measured with a pressure chamber). Summary stats: Median = 0.84, Mean = 1.123, Max = 5.1, Min = 0.006, sd = 0.9389, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* P1 [Column G, numeric]: second measurement of leaf water potential in MPa before inserting leaf in the EFM system (measured with a pressure chamber). Summary stats: Median = 0.87, Mean = 1.1399, Max = 8.1, Min = 0.005, sd = 1.0877, NA = 3, Number of significant digits = 2.
* P2 [Column H, numeric]: third measurement of leaf water potential in MPa before inserting leaf in the EFM system (only taken if the two first measurements differ from more than 0.5 Mpa) (measured with a pressure chamber). Summary stats: Median = 0.91, Mean = 1.1268, Max = 7.98, Min = 0.08, sd = 1.1336, NA = 562, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Ptube [Column I, numeric]: PEEK tube pressure in MPa. Summary stats: Median = 3e04, Mean = 4e04, Max = 0.0016, Min = 0, sd = 2e04, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Rtube [Column J, categorical]: code to indicate the type of PEEK Rtube used in the EFM system during the Kleaf measurement. The letter ( R  red; Y  yellow; B  blue; O  orange) stands for the color of the PEEK Rtube, and the number indicates the length of the PEEK tubing in cm; levels: B157; O158; R10.3; R10.3B; R10.3C; R10.3D; R24.7; R24.7B; R30; R30B; R40; R5; R7.5; R7.5B; R7.5C; Y103; Y103B; Y12; Y12B; Y15; Y16; Y23; Y23B; Y5; Y5B; Y8.5; Y8.5B.
* TempL [Column K, numeric]: leaf temperature at the end of the Kleaf *measurement determined with an infrared thermometer in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 27.7, Mean = 27.6172, Max = 40.9, Min = 12.4, sd = 5.3849, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* **TempW [Column L, numeric]:* temperature of the water at the end of the EFM tubing systems (i.e. the tubing connected to the leaf petiole) at the end of the Kleaf measurement determined with a thermocouple thermometer in ºC. Summary stats: Median = 26.7, Mean = 26.5028, Max = 223.3, Min = 3.7, sd = 7.4851, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Pf [Column M, numeric]: final leaf water potential in MPa measured with a pressure chamber. Summary stats: Median = 0.805, Mean = 1.1952, Max = 20.02, Min = 0.03, sd = 1.273, NA = 18, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Rtube [Column N, numeric]: PEEK tube known resistance in MPa s mmol1. Summary stats: Median = 0.3031, Mean = 0.8514, Max = 2.8139, Min = 0.0357, sd = 0.9135, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Rtube_cor [Column O, numeric]: PEEK tube resistance corrected for temperature in MPa s mmol1. Summary stats: Median = 0.2917, Mean = 0.8204, Max = 3.2597, Min = 0.0367, sd = 0.8726, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Kleaf [Column P, numeric]: leaf hydraulic conductance in mmol s1 MPa1. Summary stats: Median = 9e04, Mean = 0.0028, Max = 0.0794, Min = 1e04, sd = 0.0054, NA = 18, Number of significant digits = 4.
* Kleaftcor [Column Q, numeric]: leaf hydraulic conductance corrected for temperature in mmol s1 MPa1. Summary stats: Median = 9e04, Mean = 0.0026, Max = 0.0698, Min = 1e04, sd = 0.005, NA = 18, Number of significant digits = 4
* Kleaf_area [Column R, numeric]: leaf hydraulic conductance corrected for temperature and normalized by leaf area in mmol s1 m2 MPa1. Summary stats: Median = 0.4911, Mean = 2.2948, Max = 161.8336, Min = 0.1067, sd = 7.6179, NA = 22, Number of significant digits = 2.“UCBG_venation_VC.csv” [data frame: 4 columns x 946 rows]
* spp_code [Column A, categorical]: species code comprising the first three letters of the genus and the first three letters of the species name.
* Pf [Column B, numeric]: final leaf water potential in MPa measured with a pressure chamber. Summary stats: Median = 1.255, Mean = 1.593, Max = 6.6, Min = 0.01, sd = 1.242, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* P_lowest [Column C, numeric]: is the strongest dehydration (more negative leaf water potential value) experienced by the leaf during the Kleaf measurement (either P0, P1, P2 or Pf) in MPa. Summary stats: Median = 2.07, Mean = 2.2525, Max = 8.1, Min = 0.01, sd = 1.5087, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2
* Kleaf_area [Column D, numeric]: leaf hydraulic conductance corrected for temperature and normalized by leaf area in mmol s1 m2 MPa1. Summary stats: Median = 0.2912, Mean = 0.8974, Max = 26.5263, Min = 0, sd = 1.9392, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Subfolder venation_form [1,846 Files, 242 Folders, 31.8GB]: contains a metadata file (“UCBG_venation_form_metadata.csv”) with information about each cleared leaf sample used to extract the venation form traits and two subfolders, “data” and “images”.“UCBG_venation_form_metadata.csv” [data frame: 9 columns x 120 rows
* sample_name [Column A, character]: image file name.
* spp_code [Column B, character]: species code comprising the first three letters of the genus and the first three letters of the species name.
* image_resolution [Column C, numeric]: image resolution in millimeters per pixel.
* version [Column D, categorical]: version of LeafVeinCNN used to analyze the leaf image; levels: 20210304, 20220923, 20230219.
* algorithm [Column E, categorical]: which of the three CNN algorithms was used to process the leaf cleared image; levels: 1, 2, 3.
* CNN_image [Column E, categorical]: which of the three CNN images was selected as best to run the HLD analysis; levels: 1, 2, 3.
* quality [Column F, categorical]: quality assessment of the segmented leaf venation networks; Levels: A Excellent quality, all veins correctly segmented; B  Medium quality, more than 80% of veins correctly segmented; C  Medium quality, fake minor veins (veins not present in the original image) segmented; D  Medium quality, leaf damages (i.e. bubbles, tears, folds) covering less than 25% of the total leaf area; E  Poor quality, less than 80% of veins segmented; F  Poor quality, leaf damages covering more than 25% of the total leaf area.
* OBS [Column G, character]: observations about the cleared leaf image, e.g. presence of bubbles, tears, folds, etc.
* hand_traced [Column H, categorical]: was the sample handtraced? levels: full  fully handtraced, partial  partially handtraced, no  not handtraced.
* Subfolder images [882 Files, 120 Folders, 27.4 GB]: contains 120 subfolders named after the Spp_code of each plant species. Inside each species subfolder there are up to nine PNG files with: (1) original cleared leaf image, (2) cropped leaf image, (3) CLAHE (Contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization) image, (4) CNN1  segmented network produced by the first convolutional neural network; (5) CNN2  segmented network produced by the second convolutional neural network; (6) CNN3 segmented network produced by the third convolutional neural network; (7) leaf mask; (8) leaf midrib mask; (9) fullwidth image showing the segmented network (colored lines) superimposed on the original grayscale image (black lines) or on the CNN image (white lines).
* Subfolder data [963 Files, 120 Folders, 4.32 GB]: contains 120 subfolders named after the Spp_code of each plant species. Inside each species subfolder there are eight CSV files (1) “Spp_code_veins.csv” contains veins traits, (2) “Spp_code_nodes.csv” contains nodes traits; (3) “Spp_code_areole_edges.csv” contains areole edges traits, (4) “Spp_code_areoles.csv” contains areoles traits, (5) “Spp_code_polygon_edges.csv” contains polygon edges traits, (6) “Spp_code_polygons.csv” contains polygons traits, (7) “Spp_code_summary.csv” contains summary statistics (mean, median, standard deviation) for the veins, nodes, areole and polygon traits, (8) “Spp_code_HLD.csv” contains multiscale venation traits obtained via the HLD process.“Spp_code_veins.csv” [data frame: 32 columns x variable number of rows]
* name [Column A, character]: image file name.
* EndNodes_1 [Column B, numeric]: refers to the node ID for node 1 joined by the edge.
* EndNodes_2 [Column C, numeric]: refers to the node ID for node 1 joined by the edge.
* node_Idx_1 [Column D, numeric]: refers to the linear index of the node internally in the program, this means that the node pixel can be found from the linear index into the image, as opposed to a position defined by the x and y pixel coordinates.
* node_Idx_2 [Column E, numeric]: refers to the linear index of the node internally in the program, this means that the node pixel can be found from the linear index into the image, as opposed to a position defined by the x and y pixel coordinates.
* vein_ID [Column F, numeric]: unique ID number for each vein.
* Type [Column G, categorical]: refers to the type of vein; levels: EL  Edge Loop, ET  Edge Tree, EB  Edge Boundary, and F  Petiole.
* Calibration [Column H, numeric]: image resolution in millimeters per pixel.
* Weight [Column I, numeric]: an internal value used for calculations such as the shortest path when it is set to the corresponding parameter.
* Width_initial [Column J, numeric]: the average width of the entire vein segment, including any overlap region in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0635, Mean = 0.0833, Max = 5.4923, Min = 0.0066, sd = 0.0914, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Length_initial [Column K, numeric]: the length of the entire vein segment, including any overlap region in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1256, Mean = 0.1737, Max = 71.9766, Min = 0.0066, sd = 0.2466, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Orientation_initial [Column L, numeric]: the orientation of the entire vein in radians. Summary stats: Median = 0, Mean = 0.048, Max = 3.1416, Min = 3.138, sd = 2.301, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* N_pix [Column M, numeric]: the number of pixels in edge. Summary stats: Median = 14, Mean = 20.2805, Max = 9435, Min = 2, sd = 29.0806, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* M_idx [Column N, numeric]: the linear index of the middle pixel of the edge. Summary stats: Median = 38179961, Mean = 64567471.5795, Max = 435982932, Min = 522, sd = 70062573.541, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Intensity [Column O, numeric]: average value for the vein intensity in the original image. Summary stats: Median = 83.1333, Mean = 80.6002, Max = 255, Min = 0, sd = 37.2272, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Intensity_cv [Column P, numeric]: coefficient of variation for the vein intensity. Summary stats: Median = 0.0347, Mean = 0.0672, Max = 12.7279, Min = 0, sd = 0.1004, NA = 491, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Probability [Column Q, numeric]: average value for the CNN prediction. Summary stats: Median = 71.6667, Mean = 68.0906, Max = 255, Min = 3.6842, sd = 34.1226, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Probability_cv [Column R, numeric]: coefficient of variation for the CNN prediction. Summary stats: Median = 0.0587, Mean = 0.0961, Max = 1.3459, Min = 0, sd = 0.1062, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Length [Column S, numeric]: length of the vein segment excluding the overlap region in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0992, Mean = 0.1466, Max = 71.9254, Min = 0, sd = 0.2381, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Width [Column T, numeric]: average width of the vein segment excluding the overlap region in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0579, Mean = 0.0767, Max = 5.4923, Min = 0.0066, sd = 0.0886, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Width_cv [Column U, numeric]: coefficient of variation for the vein segment width in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1436, Mean = 0.1982, Max = 1.4546, Min = 0, sd = 0.1761, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Width_min [Column V, numeric]: minimum value for the vein segment width in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0467, Mean = 0.0638, Max = 5.4399, Min = 0.0066, sd = 0.0854, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Or_ij [Column W, numeric]: orientation of the edge between nodes ij measured from node i to the midpoint in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 0, Mean = 3.2435, Max = 178.0251, Min = 180, sd = 53.1427, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Or_ji [Column X, numeric]: orientation of the edge between nodes ji measured from node* j* to the midpoint in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 90, Mean = 7.7701, Max = 179.6374, Min = 180, sd = 136.8531, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Tortuosity [Column Y, numeric]: the length of the edge divided by the Euclidean distance between the nodes. Varies from 1 (a straight line) to >1 as the vein is more wiggly. Summary stats: Median = 1.0718, Mean = 1.0856, Max = 78.8871, Min = 1, sd = 0.2115, NA = 11270, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Area [Column Z, numeric]: vein crosssectional area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0026, Mean = 0.0108, Max = 23.6922, Min = 0, sd = 0.1034, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* SurfaceArea [Column AA, numeric]: vein surface area, excluding overlap region in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0185, Mean = 0.0394, Max = 24.7566, Min = 0, sd = 0.111, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Volume [Column AB, numeric]: vein volume, excluding overlap region in mm3. Summary stats: Median = 3e04, Mean = 0.0022, Max = 30.2986, Min = 0, sd = 0.0515, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Resistance_2 [Column AC, numeric]: predicted resistance to flow based on the vein area i.e. l/r2 (effectively treats the resistance as scaling with the number of equal sized vessels in a bundle) in mm1. Summary stats: Median = 137.9895, Mean = 323.5445, Max = 148604.9531, Min = 0, sd = 687.2136, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Resistance_4 [Column AD, numeric]: predicted resistance to flow based on Poiseuille flow i.e. l/r4 in mm3. Summary stats: Median = 169564.5938, Mean = 4097717.3951, Max = 3310107136, Min = 0, sd = 20576629.1507, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Ai [Column AE, numeric]: identifiers of the polygonal areas on either side of the edge. Summary stats: Median = 11377, Mean = 17159.8123, Max = 95834, Min = 0, sd = 17874.0801, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Aj [Column AF, numeric]: identifiers of the polygonal areas on either side of the edge. Summary stats: Median = 10682, Mean = 16497.5323, Max = 95829, Min = 0, sd = 17716.0595, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.“Spp_code_nodes.csv” [data frame: 21 columns x variable number of rows]
* name [Column A, character]: image file name.
* node_ID [Column B, numeric]: the unique node index.
* node_Idx [Column C, numeric]: the linear index into the image for each node.
* node_Type [Column D, categorical]: sets whether the node belongs to an edge, the petiole or is a perimeter node connected to the petiole; levels: E  edge, P  petiole.
* node_X_pix [Column E, numeric]: node X coordinate in pixel.
* node_Y_pix [Column F, numeric]: node Y coordinate in pixel.
* Calibration [Column G, numeric]: image resolution in millimeters per pixel .
* node_Degree [Column H, numeric]: number of edges at each node. Summary stats: Median = 3, Mean = 2.55, Max = 5, Min = 1, sd = 0.8369, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* node_D0 [Column I, numeric]: diameter of the largest vein incident at the node in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0681, Mean = 0.09, Max = 5.4923, Min = 0.0066, sd = 0.1, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* node_D1 [Column J, numeric]: diameter of the middle vein incident at the node in mm for node degree >= 3. Summary stats: Median = 0.0665, Mean = 0.0872, Max = 5.4811, Min = 0.0066, sd = 0.0985, NA = 973828, Number of significant digits = 2.
* node_D2 [Column K, numeric]: diameter of the smallest vein incident at the node in mm for node degree >= 3. Summary stats: Median = 0.0405, Mean = 0.0486, Max = 4.7156, Min = 0.0066, sd = 0.0456, NA = 973828, Number of significant digits = 2.
* node_Strength [Column L, numeric]: sum of the widths of the veins at each node in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1582, Mean = 0.1956, Max = 14.9486, Min = 0.0066, sd = 0.2281, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* node_Average [Column M, numeric]: average width of edges at each node in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0556, Mean = 0.0707, Max = 4.9829, Min = 0.0066, sd = 0.0738, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* node_OD0 [Column N, numeric]: orientation of the largest vein incident at the node in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 0, Mean = 5.9948, Max = 179.6374, Min = 180, sd = 104.0087, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* node_OD1 [Column O, numeric]: orientation of the average size vein incident at the node in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 0, Mean = 4.8219, Max = 179.5908, Min = 180, sd = 103.5103, NA = 973828, Number of significant digits = 2.
* node_OD2 [Column P, numeric]: orientation of the smallest vein incident at the node in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 3.1798, Mean = 5.9401, Max = 179.5724, Min = 180, sd = 104.6779, NA = 973828, Number of significant digits = 2.
* node_AreaRatio [Column Q, numeric]: sum of daughter vein area over parent area (D1 + D2)/D0, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 1.3622, Mean = 1.3485, Max = 2, Min = 0.0183, sd = 0.31, NA = 973828, Number of significant digits = 2.
* node_Symmetry [Column R, numeric]: ratio of the two daughter veins D2/D1, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.6779, Mean = 0.6422, Max = 1, Min = 0.0101, sd = 0.2406, NA = 973828, Number of significant digits = 2.
* theta_D2_D0 [Column S, numeric]: branch angles between each pair of veins at a threeway junction in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 116.9418, Mean = 118.6434, Max = 180, Min = 0, sd = 25.0515, NA = 973828, Number of significant digits = 2.
* theta_D1_D0 [Column T, numeric]: branch angles between each pair of veins at a threeway junction in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 139.0856, Mean = 137.3287, Max = 180, Min = 0, sd = 25.5515, NA = 973828, Number of significant digits = 2
* theta_D2_D1 [Column U, numeric]: branch angles between each pair of veins at a threeway junction in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 99.4623, Mean = 98.254, Max = 180, Min = 0, sd = 29.337, NA = 973828, Number of significant digits = 2.“Spp_code_areole_edges.csv” [data frame: 6 columns x variable number of rows]
* name [Column A, character]: image file name.
* EndNodes_1 [Column B, numeric]: the areole node ID for node 1 joined by the edge from the dualgraph
* EndNodes_2 [Column C, numeric]: the areole node ID for node 2 joined by the edge from the dualgraph.
* Width [Column D, numeric]: width of the vein separating the areoles in the dualgraph in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0648, Mean = 0.0827, Max = 5.4923, Min = 0.0066, sd = 0.0934, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* edgeID [Column E, numeric]: unique ID produced for each areole edge.
* Calibration [Column F, numeric]: image resolution in millimeters per pixel.“Spp_code_areoles.csv” [data frame: 19 columns x variable number of rows]
* name [Column A, character]: image file name.
* polygonID [Column B, numeric]: the unique ID for each areole. This corresponds to Ai or Aj in the vein metrics.
* node_X_pix [Column C, numeric]: the pixel X coordinate of the areole centroid in pixels.
* node_Y_pix [Column D, numeric]: the pixel Y coordinate of the areole centroid in pixels.
* Calibration [Column E, numeric]: image resolution in millimeters per pixel.
* Area [Column F, numeric]: areole area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0163, Mean = 0.0947, Max = 2788.4436, Min = 0, sd = 2.6687, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* MajorAxisLength [Column G, numeric]: length of the major axis of the ellipse that has the same normalized second central moments as the areole in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.2113, Mean = 0.3465, Max = 191.1296, Min = 0, sd = 0.7167, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* MinorAxisLength [Column H, numeric]: length of the minor axis of the ellipse that has the same normalized second central moments as the areole in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1141, Mean = 0.1733, Max = 100.6688, Min = 0, sd = 0.2832, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Eccentricity [Column I, numeric]: ratio of the distance between the foci of an ellipse, with the same second moment as the area of the areole, and its major axis length. The value is between 0 and 1, representing a circle and a line, respectively. Summary stats: Median = 0.7981, Mean = 0.6928, Max = 1, Min = 0, sd = 0.2937, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Orientation [Column J, numeric]: angle between the xaxis and the major axis of the ellipse that has the same secondmoments as the areole. The value ranges from 90 to 90 degrees. Summary stats: Median = 0, Mean = 0.9619, Max = 90, Min = 90, sd = 49.2302, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* ConvexArea [Column K, numeric]: area of the convex hull enclosing the areole in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0193, Mean = 0.1485, Max = 8091.5883, Min = 0, sd = 10.1202, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* EquivDiameter [Column L, numeric]: areole equivalent diameter in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.2993, Mean = 7.381, Max = 2813.2611, Min = 0, sd = 21.083, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Solidity [Column M, numeric]: proportion of the pixels in the convex hull that are also in the areole. Computed as Area/ConvexArea, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.9076, Mean = 0.8784, Max = 1, Min = 6e04, sd = 0.1142, NA = 28, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Perimeter [Column N, numeric]: distance around the boundary of the areole between each adjoining pair of pixels around the border in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.5473, Mean = 1.1164, Max = 574.9453, Min = 0, sd = 2.6345, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* MeanDistance [Column O, numeric]: average distance from all pixels within the areole to the bounding veins in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0277, Mean = 0.0307, Max = 0.8887, Min = 0.0098, sd = 0.0208, NA = 28, Number of significant digits = 2.
* MaxDistance [Column P, numeric]: maximum distance of any pixel within the areole to the bounding veins in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0529, Mean = 0.0673, Max = 3.005, Min = 0.0034, sd = 0.0641, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Circularity [Column Q, numeric]: ratio of the perimeter of a circle with the same area to the actual perimeter, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.7743, Mean = 8028.2524, Max = 119788.7578, Min = 0.0064, sd = 21485.5494, NA = 28, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Elongation [Column R, numeric]: ratio of the major and minor axis lengths, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 1.6599, Mean = 1.9735, Max = 262.6458, Min = 1, sd = 2.1372, NA = 28, Number of significant digits = 2
* Roughness [Column S, numeric]: ratio of the perimeter squared to the area, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 16.2285, Mean = 21.9629, Max = 1959.649, Min = 0, sd = 24.5378, NA = 28, Number of significant digits = 2.“Spp_code_polygon_edges.csv” [data frame: c columns x variable number of rows]
* name [Column A, character]: image file name.
* EndNodes_1 [Column B, numeric]: the polygon node ID for node 1 joined by the edge from the dual graph.
* EndNodes_2 [Column C, numeric]: the polygon node ID for node 2 joined by the edge from the dual graph.
* Width [Column D, numeric]: width of the vein separating the polygons in the dualgraph in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.065, Mean = 0.0828, Max = 5.4923, Min = 0.0066, sd = 0.0924, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* edgeID [Column E, numeric]: unique ID produced for each polygon edge
* Calibration [Column F, numeric]: image resolution in millimeters per pixel.“Spp_code_polygons.csv” [data frame: 19 columns x variable number of rows]
* name [Column A, character]: image file name.
* polygonID [Column B, numeric]: the unique ID for each polygonal area.
* node_X_pix [Column C, numeric]: the pixel X coordinate of the centroid of the polygonal area in pixels.
* node_Y_pix [Column D, numeric]: the pixel Y coordinate of the centroid of the polygonal area in pixels.
* Calibration [Column E, numeric]: image resolution in millimeters per pixel.
* Area [Column F, numeric]: polygonal area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0447, Mean = 0.1487, Max = 2993.9927, Min = 1e04, sd = 2.9292, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* MajorAxisLength [Column G, numeric]: length of the major axis of the ellipse that has the same normalized second central moments as the polygonal area in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.3063, Mean = 0.4409, Max = 206.1422, Min = 0.0152, sd = 0.7391, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* MinorAxisLength [Column H, numeric]: length of the minor axis of the ellipse that has the same normalized second central moments as the polygonal area in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1962, Mean = 0.2505, Max = 98.036, Min = 0.0076, sd = 0.2943, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Eccentricity [Column I, numeric]: ratio of the distance between the foci of an ellipse, with the same second moment as the area of the polygon, and its major axis length. The value is between 0 and 1, representing a circle and a line, respectively. Summary stats: Median = 0.7539, Mean = 0.7268, Max = 1, Min = 0, sd = 0.164, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Orientation [Column J, numeric]: angle, in degrees, between the xaxis and the major axis of the ellipse that has the same secondmoments as the polygonal area. The value ranges from 90 to 90 degrees. Summary stats: Median = 0, Mean = 0.0347, Max = 90, Min = 90, sd = 51.4989, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* ConvexArea [Column K, numeric]: area of the convex hull enclosing the polygonal area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0494, Mean = 0.2, Max = 8092.1406, Min = 1e04, sd = 10.2395, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* EquivDiameter [Column L, numeric]: equivalent diameter in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.2385, Mean = 0.3103, Max = 61.742, Min = 0.0105, sd = 0.305, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Solidity [Column M, numeric]: proportion of the pixels in the convex hull that are also in the polygonal area. Computed as Area/ConvexArea, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.9231, Mean = 0.9115, Max = 1, Min = 0.012, sd = 0.057, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Perimeter [Column N, numeric]: distance around the boundary of the polygonal area between each adjoining pair of pixels around the border in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.84, Mean = 1.1902, Max = 498.6542, Min = 0.0129, sd = 1.9455, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* MeanDistance [Column O, numeric]: average distance from all pixels within the polygonal area to the bounding veins in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0361, Mean = 0.0424, Max = 1.6246, Min = 0.0044, sd = 0.032, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* MaxDistance [Column P, numeric]: maximum distance from any pixel within the polygonal area to the bounding veins in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.087, Mean = 0.108, Max = 5.5461, Min = 0.0099, sd = 0.0912, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Circularity [Column Q, numeric]: ratio of the perimeter of a circle with the same area to the actual perimeter, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.8118, Mean = 0.8556, Max = 6.5423, Min = 0.0012, sd = 0.3495, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Elongation [Column R, numeric]: ratio of the major and minor axis length, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 1.5222, Mean = 1.7612, Max = 247.8059, Min = 1, sd = 1.5649, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2
* Roughness [Column S, numeric]: ratio of the perimeter squared to the area, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 15.4804, Mean = 16.3708, Max = 10109.4305, Min = 1.9208, sd = 15.1905, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.“Spp_code_summary.csv” [data frame: 164 columns x 1 row]
* File [Column A, character]: image file name.
* TimeStamp [Column B, numeric]: time of image analysis.
* resolution [Column C, numeric]: image resolution in millimeters per pixel.
* Threshold [Column D, numeric]: value of threshold selected by user during the image analysis. This column is only present in the samples analyzed with the newer version (20230219) of LeafVeinCNN.
* VNE [Column E, numeric]: Veins  Number of Edges. Summary stats: Median = 16902.5, Mean = 47259.1417, Max = 396260, Min = 12, sd = 72044.4518, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VNN [Column F, numeric]: Veins  Number of Nodes. Summary stats: Median = 13399, Mean = 37067.6583, Max = 300633, Min = 8, sd = 56229.8098, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VFE [Column G, numeric]: Veins – Number of Free Ends. Summary stats: Median = 2529.5, Mean = 8105.575, Max = 72414, Min = 0, sd = 13219.9728, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VFEratio [Column H, numeric]: Ratio of Vein Free Ends to total Nodes, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.1855, Mean = 0.2009, Max = 2, Min = 0, sd = 0.1997, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* Valpha [Column I, numeric]: Veins  alpha index or meshedness coefficient (fraction of edges present compared to a maximally connected network with the same nodes), dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.1297, Mean = 0.1333, Max = 0.4545, Min = 0.2509, sd = 0.0726, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotL [Column J, numeric]: Veins  Total Length (total refers to the complete network of both loops and tree regions) in mm. Summary stats: Median = 3397.0884, Mean = 6934.8421, Max = 38757.2037, Min = 77.7696, sd = 8907.4657, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopL [Column K, numeric]: Veins  Loop Length (i.e. loop excludes branching trees leading to free ends) in mm. Summary stats: Median = 2371.6849, Mean = 5589.1003, Max = 37306.2668, Min = 0, sd = 7392.7106, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreeL [Column L, numeric]: Veins  Tree Length (i.e. tree length excludes veins in loops) in mm. Summary stats: Median = 620.8094, Mean = 1345.7418, Max = 12645.0248, Min = 0, sd = 2086.0815, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotV [Column M, numeric]: Veins  Total Volume (modeled as cylinders from the length and average width. The length excludes the region of overlap with a larger vein) in mm3. Summary stats: Median = 26.981, Mean = 103.9901, Max = 2216.4426, Min = 0.0346, sd = 278.3613, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopV [Column N, numeric]: Veins  Loop Volume in mm3. Summary stats: Median = 25.3217, Mean = 98.4665, Max = 2045.0535, Min = 0, sd = 260.6045, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreeV [Column O, numeric]: Veins  Tree Volume in mm3. Summary stats: Median = 1.2309, Mean = 5.5236, Max = 171.3885, Min = 0, sd = 20.1675, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotW [Column P, numeric]: Veins  Total average Width for the whole vein network in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0713, Mean = 0.0775, Max = 0.1972, Min = 0.0232, sd = 0.034, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopW [Column Q, numeric]: Veins  average Width for the loopy vein network in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0789, Mean = 0.0857, Max = 0.2246, Min = 0.0233, sd = 0.0396, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreeW [Column R, numeric]: Veins  average Width for the tree vein network in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0445, Mean = 0.0478, Max = 0.1391, Min = 0.0178, sd = 0.0199, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* TotA [Column S, numeric]: total area included in the analysis (excludes regions that were masked) in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 765.749, Mean = 1571.7142, Max = 15510.3339, Min = 16.0324, sd = 2375.1756, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* TotPA [Column T, numeric]: total polygon area included in the analysis (excludes regions that were masked) in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 765.6977, Mean = 1571.3743, Max = 15509.1831, Min = 15.8214, sd = 2374.9673, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotLD [Column U, numeric]: Veins  Total Length Density (Length over total Area) in mm1. Summary stats: Median = 4.9042, Mean = 5.1026, Max = 10.8065, Min = 0.9132, sd = 2.2268, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopLD [Column V, numeric]: Veins  Loop Length Density in mm1. Summary stats: Median = 4.1135, Mean = 4.1998, Max = 9.7236, Min = 0, sd = 2.2714, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreeLD [Column W, numeric]: Veins  Tree Length Density in mm1. Summary stats: Median = 0.7933, Mean = 0.9029, Max = 4.9268, Min = 0, sd = 0.6784, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotVD [Column X, numeric]: Veins  Total Volume Density in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0372, Mean = 0.0456, Max = 0.2018, Min = 0.0022, sd = 0.0353, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopVD [Column Y, numeric]: Veins  Loop Volume Density in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0351, Mean = 0.0432, Max = 0.1862, Min = 0, sd = 0.0345, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreeVD [Column Z, numeric]: Veins  Tree Volume Density in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0016, Mean = 0.0024, Max = 0.0224, Min = 0, sd = 0.0032, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VNND [Column AA, numeric]: Veins  Node Density in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 20.3744, Mean = 25.0396, Max = 104.3664, Min = 0.1155, sd = 21.4313, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotavLen [Column AB, numeric]: Veins  Total Length mean in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1787, Mean = 0.6011, Max = 10.3301, Min = 0.0708, sd = 1.5999, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotmdLen [Column AC, numeric]: Veins  Total Length median in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1412, Mean = 0.2336, Max = 2.3391, Min = 0.0555, sd = 0.2939, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotsdLen [Column AD, numeric]: Veins  Total Length standard deviation in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1607, Mean = 0.7388, Max = 12.7514, Min = 0.0467, sd = 2.2025, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopavLen [Column AE, numeric]: Veins  Loop Length mean in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1896, Mean = 0.3887, Max = 7.5867, Min = 0.0637, sd = 0.8562, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopmdLen [Column AF, numeric]: Veins  Loop Length median in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1501, Mean = 0.2066, Max = 1.4474, Min = 0.0458, sd = 0.1993, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopsdLen [Column AG, numeric]: Veins  Loop Length standard deviation in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1602, Mean = 0.4846, Max = 11.8708, Min = 0.0389, sd = 1.5212, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreeavLen [Column AH, numeric]: Veins  Tree Length mean in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1397, Mean = 0.6216, Max = 17.0427, Min = 0.0529, sd = 2.0822, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreemdLen [Column AI, numeric]: Veins  Tree Length median in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1103, Mean = 0.4493, Max = 18.5747, Min = 0.0428, sd = 1.9205, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreesdLen [Column AJ, numeric]: Veins  Tree Length standard deviation in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1602, Mean = 0.4846, Max = 11.8708, Min = 0.0389, sd = 1.5212, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotavWid [Column AK, numeric]: Veins  total mean Width, excluding overlap regions of small veins with larger veins in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0688, Mean = 0.0711, Max = 0.1494, Min = 0.0248, sd = 0.026, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotmdWid [Column AL, numeric]: Veins  total median Width, excluding overlap regions of small veins with larger veins in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0552, Mean = 0.0558, Max = 0.118, Min = 0.0082, sd = 0.019, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotsdWid [Column AM, numeric]: Veins  total standard deviation Width, excluding overlap regions of small veins with larger veins in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.064, Mean = 0.068, Max = 0.1623, Min = 0.0096, sd = 0.0341, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopavWid [Column AN, numeric]: Veins  loop mean Width, excluding overlap regions of small veins with larger veins in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0773, Mean = 0.0797, Max = 0.1676, Min = 0.0256, sd = 0.0291, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopmdWid [Column AO, numeric]: Veins  loop median Width, excluding overlap regions of small veins with larger veins in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.063, Mean = 0.0628, Max = 0.1371, Min = 0.0212, sd = 0.0213, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopsdWid [Column AP, numeric]: Veins  loop standard deviation Width, excluding overlap regions of small veins with larger veins in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0696, Mean = 0.075, Max = 0.1869, Min = 0.0099, sd = 0.0388, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreeavWid [Column AQ, numeric]: Veins  tree mean Width, excluding overlap regions of small veins with larger veins in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0402, Mean = 0.0443, Max = 0.1068, Min = 0.0179, sd = 0.017, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreemdWid [Column AR, numeric]: Veins  tree median Width, excluding overlap regions of small veins with larger veins in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0371, Mean = 0.0392, Max = 0.077, Min = 0.0082, sd = 0.0127, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreesdWid [Column AS, numeric]: Veins  loop standard deviation Width, excluding overlap regions of small veins with larger veins in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.019, Mean = 0.0267, Max = 0.0958, Min = 2e04, sd = 0.0199, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotavSAr [Column AT, numeric]: Veins  total mean Surface area, modeled as a cylinder from the length and average width, excluding overlap in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0454, Mean = 0.1276, Max = 2.4493, Min = 0.0091, sd = 0.3464, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotmdSAr [Column AU, numeric]: Veins  total median Surface area, modeled as a cylinder from the length and average width, excluding overlap in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.025, Mean = 0.0462, Max = 0.8091, Min = 0.0067, sd = 0.0975, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotsdSAr [Column AV, numeric]: Veins  total standard deviation Surface area, modeled as a cylinder from the length and average width, excluding overlap in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0782, Mean = 0.2149, Max = 4.3511, Min = 0.0136, sd = 0.5641, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopavSAr [Column AX, numeric]: Veins  loop mean Surface area, modeled as a cylinder from the length and average width, excluding overlap in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0522, Mean = 0.0912, Max = 2.1941, Min = 0.0103, sd = 0.212, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopmdSAr [Column AY, numeric]: Veins  loop median Surface area, modeled as a cylinder from the length and average width, excluding overlap in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0278, Mean = 0.0416, Max = 0.6984, Min = 0.0075, sd = 0.0657, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopsdSAr [Column AZ, numeric]: Veins  loop standard deviation Surface area, modeled as a cylinder from the length and average width, excluding overlap in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0842, Mean = 0.1675, Max = 4.3511, Min = 0.0136, sd = 0.4272, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreeavSAr [Column BA, numeric]: Veins  tree mean Surface area, modeled as a cylinder from the length and average width, excluding overlap in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0209, Mean = 0.1124, Max = 4.0427, Min = 0.0042, sd = 0.4453, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreemdSAr [Column BC, numeric]: Veins  tree median Surface area, modeled as a cylinder from the length and average width, excluding overlap in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0136, Mean = 0.0769, Max = 3.7707, Min = 0.0034, sd = 0.3905, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreesdSAr [Column BD, numeric]: Veins  tree standard deviation Surface area, modeled as a cylinder from the length and average width, excluding overlap in mm2.
* VTotavVol [Column BE, numeric]: Veins total mean Volume modeled as cylinders from the length and width, excluding overlap in mm3. Summary stats: Median = 0.0245, Mean = 0.1295, Max = 3.8945, Min = 0.0034, sd = 0.4375, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotmdVol [Column BF, numeric]: Veins total median Volume modeled as cylinders from the length and width, excluding overlap in mm3. Summary stats: Median = 4e04, Mean = 8e04, Max = 0.0172, Min = 0, sd = 0.002, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTotsdVol [Column BG, numeric]: Veins total standard deviation Volume modeled as cylinders from the length and width, excluding overlap in mm3. Summary stats: Median = 0.0094, Mean = 0.0207, Max = 0.215, Min = 2e04, sd = 0.0346, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopavVol [Column BH, numeric]: Veins loop mean Volume modeled as cylinders from the length and width, excluding overlap in mm3. Summary stats: Median = 0.0021, Mean = 0.0038, Max = 0.0909, Min = 1e04, sd = 0.0086, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopmdVol [Column BI, numeric]: Veins loop median Volume modeled as cylinders from the length and width, excluding overlap in mm3. Summary stats: Median = 4e04, Mean = 7e04, Max = 0.0172, Min = 1e04, sd = 0.0016, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VLoopsdVol [Column BJ, numeric]: Veins loop standard deviation Volume modeled as cylinders from the length and width, excluding overlap in mm3. Summary stats: Median = 0.0104, Mean = 0.0211, Max = 0.2323, Min = 2e04, sd = 0.036, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreeavVol [Column BK, numeric]: Veins tree mean Volume modeled as cylinders from the length and width, excluding overlap in mm3. Summary stats: Median = 3e04, Mean = 0.0024, Max = 0.0943, Min = 0, sd = 0.0102, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreemdVol [Column BL, numeric]: Veins tree median Volume modeled as cylinders from the length and width, excluding overlap in mm3. Summary stats: Median = 1e04, Mean = 0.0011, Max = 0.0616, Min = 0, sd = 0.0064, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VTreesdVol [Column BM, numeric]: Veins tree standard deviation Volume modeled as cylinders from the length and width, excluding overlap in mm3. Summary stats: Median = 9e04, Mean = 0.007, Max = 0.1707, Min = 0, sd = 0.0218, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VavTor [Column BN, numeric]: Veins  mean Tortuosity – Length of vein / Euclidean distance between endpoints, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 1.086, Mean = 1.0893, Max = 1.2263, Min = 1.0246, sd = 0.0276, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VmdTor [Column BO, numeric]: Veins  median Tortuosity – Length of vein / Euclidean distance between endpoints, , dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 1.0738, Mean = 1.0705, Max = 1.0808, Min = 1.0164, sd = 0.0116, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VsdTor [Column BP, numeric]: Veins  standard deviation Tortuosity – Length of vein / Euclidean distance between endpoints, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.1285, Mean = 0.1782, Max = 1.3421, Min = 0.0206, sd = 0.155, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VavOri [Column BQ, numeric]: Veins  mean Average orientation of all veins, calculated using circular statistics in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 2.9684, Mean = 9.7554, Max = 5.58, Min = 71.9371, sd = 17.6147, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* VsdOri [Column BR, numeric]: Veins  standard deviation Average orientation of all veins, calculated using circular statistics in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 49.6963, Mean = 49.8334, Max = 64.2187, Min = 22.2803, sd = 3.6947, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NavBD0 [Column BS, numeric]: mean Node average Branch D0 in mm. Calculates the average diameter of the parent branch joining a junction, assuming junctions have degree 3. Junctions with higher degree are very rare. Free end veins have a degree of 1, so only the maximum vein width is recorded in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0792, Mean = 0.0838, Max = 0.2167, Min = 0.0248, sd = 0.0342, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NmdBD0 [Column BT, numeric]: median Node average Branch D0 in mm. Calculates the average diameter of the parent branch joining a junction, assuming junctions have degree 3. Junctions with higher degree are very rare. Free end veins have a degree of 1, so only the maximum vein width is recorded in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0642, Mean = 0.0669, Max = 0.1913, Min = 0.0082, sd = 0.028, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NsdBD0 [Column BU, numeric]: standard deviation Node average Branch D0 in mm. Calculates the average diameter of the parent branch joining a junction, assuming junctions have degree 3. Junctions with higher degree are very rare. Free end veins have a degree of 1, so only the maximum vein width is recorded in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0715, Mean = 0.0758, Max = 0.1819, Min = 0.0094, sd = 0.0376, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NavBD1 [Column BV, numeric]: mean Node average Branch D1 in mm. Calculates the average diameter of the largest daughter vein at a junction. Summary stats: Median = 0.0764, Mean = 0.0805, Max = 0.1687, Min = 0.0248, sd = 0.0292, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NmdBD1 [Column BW, numeric]: median Node average Branch D1 in mm. Calculates the average diameter of the largest daughter vein at a junction. Summary stats: Median = 0.0622, Mean = 0.0633, Max = 0.1397, Min = 0.0212, sd = 0.023, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NsdBD1 [Column BX, numeric]: standard deviation Node average Branch D1 in mm. Calculates the average diameter of the largest daughter vein at a junction. Summary stats: Median = 0.0704, Mean = 0.0749, Max = 0.1869, Min = 0.0081, sd = 0.038, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NavBD2 [Column BY, numeric]: mean Node average Branch parent in mm. Calculates the average diameter of the smallest branch at a junction. Summary stats: Median = 0.0456, Mean = 0.0454, Max = 0.0811, Min = 0.0183, sd = 0.0135, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NmdBD2 [Column BZ, numeric]: median Node average Branch parent in mm. Calculates the average diameter of the smallest branch at a junction. Summary stats: Median = 0.0381, Mean = 0.0403, Max = 0.077, Min = 0.0181, sd = 0.0119, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NsdBD2 [Column CA, numeric]: standard deviation Node average Branch parent in mm. Calculates the average diameter of the smallest branch at a junction. Summary stats: Median = 0.0284, Mean = 0.0323, Max = 0.0958, Min = 0.0032, sd = 0.0202, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NavA10 [Column CB, numeric]: mean Node average Angle between D1 and D0 veins at each junction in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 140.4295, Mean = 140.7088, Max = 165.6978, Min = 126.2145, sd = 6.9006, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NsdA10 [Column CC, numeric]: standard deviation Node average Angle between D1 and D0 veins at each junction in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 24.3718, Mean = 25.7567, Max = 53.0923, Min = 15.9417, sd = 6.3679, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NavA20 [Column CD, numeric]: mean Node average Angle between D2 and D0 veins at each junction in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 117.3104, Mean = 116.7129, Max = 137.9808, Min = 95.1708, sd = 6.5637, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NsdA20 [Column CE, numeric]: standard deviation Node average Angle between D2 and D0 veins at each junction in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 24.726, Mean = 26.0392, Max = 56.5357, Min = 16.0916, sd = 6.8787, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NavA21 [Column CF, numeric]: mean Node average Angle between D1 and D0 veins at each junction in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 100.8219, Mean = 100.2598, Max = 133.6035, Min = 61.3593, sd = 9.7863, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* NsdA21 [Column CG, numeric]: standard deviation Node average Angle between D1 and D0 veins at each junction in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 27.6066, Mean = 29.1428, Max = 60.128, Min = 15.1742, sd = 8.7892, NA = 1, Number of significant digits = 2.
* ATA [Column CH, numeric]: Areole Total Area (Areoles exclude the veins) in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 482.4121, Mean = 992.9176, Max = 10279.4388, Min = 10.9082, sd = 1526.4997, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* ANN [Column CI, numeric]: Areole Number of Nodes. Summary stats: Median = 2977.5, Mean = 10154.7667, Max = 95820, Min = 5, sd = 16335.2269, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AloopND [Column CJ, numeric]: Areole Loop Density in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 4.6389, Mean = 7.423, Max = 36.6906, Min = 0.0057, sd = 7.8118, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AavAre [Column CK, numeric]: mean Areole average Area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.1378, Mean = 1.9498, Max = 164.0266, Min = 0.0083, sd = 15.0039, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AmdAre [Column CL, numeric]: median Areole average Area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0474, Mean = 0.2218, Max = 4.3297, Min = 0, sd = 0.5884, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AsdAre [Column CM, numeric]: standard deviation Areole average Area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.2421, Mean = 7.2987, Max = 676.2968, Min = 0.013, sd = 62.0416, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AavEcc [Column CN, numeric]: mean Areole Eccentricity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.7504, Mean = 0.7127, Max = 0.9999, Min = 0.1591, sd = 0.1622, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AmdEcc [Column CO, numeric]: median Areole Eccentricity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.8087, Mean = 0.7525, Max = 1, Min = 0, sd = 0.2511, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AsdEcc [Column CP, numeric]: standard deviation Areole Eccentricity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.2027, Mean = 0.24, Max = 0.4625, Min = 1e04, sd = 0.1043, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AavMaj [Column CQ, numeric]: mean Areole Major axis length in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.4711, Mean = 1.4402, Max = 24.7109, Min = 0.1329, sd = 3.5872, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AmdMaj [Column CR, numeric]: median Areole Major axis length in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.3521, Mean = 1.1018, Max = 33.1036, Min = 0.0078, sd = 3.8163, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AsdMaj [Column CS, numeric]: standard deviation Areole Major axis length in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.576, Mean = 1.7142, Max = 31.3381, Min = 0.0887, sd = 3.9661, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AavMin [Column CT, numeric]: mean Areole Minor axis length in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.2176, Mean = 0.3091, Max = 1.7832, Min = 0.072, sd = 0.2833, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AmdMin [Column CU, numeric]: median Areole Minor axis length in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1766, Mean = 0.2249, Max = 1.689, Min = 0.0078, sd = 0.2306, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AsdMin [Column CV, numeric]: standard deviation Areole Minor axis length in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.222, Mean = 0.4059, Max = 7.2517, Min = 0.0424, sd = 0.7441, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AavPer [Column CW, numeric]: mean Areole Perimeter in mm. Summary stats: Median = 1.6677, Mean = 4.0041, Max = 45.5314, Min = 0.2853, sd = 7.9034, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AmdPer [Column CX, numeric]: median Areole Perimeter in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.9446, Mean = 2.404, Max = 58.6902, Min = 0, sd = 6.7623, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AsdPer [Column CY, numeric]: standard deviation Areole Perimeter in mm. Summary stats: Median = 2.0466, Mean = 5.9506, Max = 124.9455, Min = 0.2346, sd = 15.8649, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AavElg [Column CZ, numeric]: mean Areole Elongation, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 1.886, Mean = 5.0749, Max = 108.2974, Min = 1.3129, sd = 13.9614, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AmdElg [Column DA, numeric]: median Areole Elongation, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 1.7001, Mean = 4.5813, Max = 119.4476, Min = 1, sd = 15.1931, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AsdElg [Column DB, numeric]: standard deviation Areole Elongation, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.8107, Mean = 3.2129, Max = 60.3419, Min = 0.4412, sd = 8.2035, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AavCir [Column DC, numeric]: mean Areole Circularity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.7432, Mean = 30.2114, Max = 2411.2095, Min = 0.0237, sd = 235.429, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AmdCir [Column DD, numeric]: median Areole Circularity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.5869, Mean = 0.6514, Max = 6.5423, Min = 0.019, sd = 0.6109, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AsdCir [Column DE, numeric]: standard deviation Areole Circularity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.8875, Mean = 258.9691, Max = 16872.8378, Min = 0.0164, sd = 1706.2129, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AavRgh [Column DF, numeric]: mean Areole Roughness, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 25.4687, Mean = 43.4798, Max = 639.5551, Min = 3.1369, sd = 80.9258, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AmdRgh [Column DG, numeric]: median Areole Roughness, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 19.9581, Mean = 32.3157, Max = 659.7027, Min = 0, sd = 81.5889, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AsdRgh [Column DH, numeric]: standard deviation Areole Roughness, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 20.9372, Mean = 39.9529, Max = 458.739, Min = 3.149, sd = 66.9982, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AavOri [Column DI, numeric]: mean Areole Orientation in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 0.1185, Mean = 9.9243, Max = 15.1716, Min = 87.3767, sd = 27.0235, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AsdOri [Column DJ, numeric]: standard deviation Areole Orientation in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 46.1141, Mean = 44.9585, Max = 75.4094, Min = 0.1777, sd = 9.8339, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AavCnA [Column DK, numeric]: mean Areole Convex Area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.2254, Mean = 2.5729, Max = 186.1983, Min = 0.0115, sd = 17.1368, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AmdCnA [Column DL, numeric]: median Areole Convex Area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0543, Mean = 0.2961, Max = 7.77, Min = 0, sd = 0.9414, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AsdCnA [Column DM, numeric]: standard deviation Areole Convex Area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.4323, Mean = 13.7399, Max = 767.7131, Min = 0.0194, sd = 71.882, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AavSld [Column DN, numeric]: mean Areole Solidity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.8775, Mean = 0.8741, Max = 0.993, Min = 0.5595, sd = 0.06, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AmdSld [Column DO, numeric]: median Areole Solidity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.8963, Mean = 0.8958, Max = 1, Min = 0.5437, sd = 0.0741, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AsdSld [Column DP, numeric]: standard deviation Areole Solidity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.0973, Mean = 0.1004, Max = 0.2726, Min = 0.0289, sd = 0.0331, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AavDav [Column DQ, numeric]: mean Areole average Distance to the vein network in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0379, Mean = 0.0431, Max = 0.1695, Min = 0.0164, sd = 0.0255, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AmdDav [Column DR, numeric]: median Areole average Distance to the vein network in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0347, Mean = 0.0398, Max = 0.18, Min = 0.0101, sd = 0.0286, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.standard deviation Areole average Distance to the vein network in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0165, Mean = 0.0216, Max = 0.0777, Min = 0.0029, sd = 0.0179, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AavDmx [Column DT, numeric]: mean Areole maximum Distance to the vein network in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0849, Mean = 0.1053, Max = 0.4848, Min = 0.0327, sd = 0.0742, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AmdDmx [Column DU, numeric]: median Areole maximum Distance to the vein network in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0788, Mean = 0.0944, Max = 0.5017, Min = 0.0101, sd = 0.0825, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* AsdDmx [Column DV, numeric]: standard deviation Areole maximum Distance to the vein network in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0522, Mean = 0.068, Max = 0.2528, Min = 0.0135, sd = 0.0568, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PTA [Column DX, numeric]: Polygon Total Area (Polygons include the area up to the pixel skeleton rather than just the areole) in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 765.6977, Mean = 1571.3743, Max = 15509.1831, Min = 15.8214, sd = 2374.9673, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PNN [Column DY, numeric] : Polygon Number of Nodes (excludes those that are incomplete and touching the boundary or internally masked areas). Summary stats: Median = 2977.5, Mean = 10154.7667, Max = 95820, Min = 5, sd = 16335.2269, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PloopND [Column DZ, numeric]: Polygon Loop Density in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 4.6389, Mean = 7.423, Max = 36.6906, Min = 0.0057, sd = 7.8118, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PavAre [Column EA, numeric]: mean Polygon average Area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.2156, Mean = 2.2058, Max = 176.1312, Min = 0.0273, sd = 16.1145, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PmdAre [Column EB, numeric]: median Polygon average Area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0885, Mean = 0.3124, Max = 6.6885, Min = 0.0023, sd = 0.8103, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PsdAre [Column EC, numeric]: standard deviation Polygon average Area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.3257, Mean = 8.0316, Max = 726.1463, Min = 0.0294, sd = 66.6537, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PavEcc [Column ED, numeric]: mean Polygon Eccentricity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.7403, Mean = 0.7642, Max = 0.9999, Min = 0.6774, sd = 0.0762, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PmdEcc [Column EE, numeric]: median Polygon Eccentricity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.7736, Mean = 0.7963, Max = 0.9999, Min = 0.7009, sd = 0.0777, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PsdEcc [Column EF, numeric]: standard deviation Polygon Eccentricity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.1524, Mean = 0.1529, Max = 0.2295, Min = 1e04, sd = 0.0337, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PavMaj [Column EG, numeric]: mean Polygon Major axis length in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.5646, Mean = 1.537, Max = 24.7862, Min = 0.2173, sd = 3.605, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PmdMaj [Column EH, numeric]: median Polygon Major axis length in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.4495, Mean = 1.1984, Max = 33.5864, Min = 0.0743, sd = 3.8403, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PsdMaj [Column EI, numeric]: standard deviation Polygon Major axis length in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.615, Mean = 1.7473, Max = 31.4825, Min = 0.1142, sd = 3.9876, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PavMin [Column EJ, numeric]: mean Polygon Minor axis length in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.2894, Mean = 0.3831, Max = 1.8648, Min = 0.1419, sd = 0.2828, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PmdMin [Column EK, numeric]: median Polygon Minor axis length in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.2508, Mean = 0.3006, Max = 1.7478, Min = 0.0421, sd = 0.231, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PsdMin [Column EL, numeric]: standard deviation Polygon Minor axis length in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.2288, Mean = 0.4187, Max = 7.2241, Min = 0.041, sd = 0.7422, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PavPer [Column EM, numeric]: mean Polygon Perimeter in pixels. Summary stats: Median = 1.5525, Mean = 3.4646, Max = 43.5106, Min = 0.5608, sd = 6.6132, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PmdPer [Column EN, numeric]: median Polygon Perimeter in pixels. Summary stats: Median = 1.2005, Mean = 2.6008, Max = 58.7899, Min = 0.1718, sd = 6.7367, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PsdPer [Column EO, numeric]: standard deviation Polygon Perimeter in pixels. Summary stats: Median = 1.7478, Mean = 4.3029, Max = 86.4275, Min = 0.2843, sd = 9.7567, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PavElg [Column EP, numeric]: mean Polygon Elongation, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 1.7553, Mean = 4.2419, Max = 89.9708, Min = 1.472, sd = 11.1458, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PmdElg [Column EQ, numeric]: median Polygon Elongation, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 1.5781, Mean = 3.8359, Max = 93.6944, Min = 1.4019, sd = 11.9453, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PsdElg [Column ER, numeric]: standard deviation Polygon Elongation, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.6802, Mean = 2.4717, Max = 46.5285, Min = 0.3362, sd = 6.4894, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PavCir [Column ES, numeric]: mean Polygon Circularity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.7823, Mean = 0.7785, Max = 1.1346, Min = 0.0306, sd = 0.2008, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PmdCir [Column ET, numeric]: median Polygon Circularity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.7742, Mean = 0.7418, Max = 1.1755, Min = 0.027, sd = 0.1946, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PsdCir [Column EU, numeric]: standard deviation Polygon Circularity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.2332, Mean = 0.2902, Max = 0.7487, Min = 0.0155, sd = 0.1571, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PavRgh [Column EV, numeric]: mean Polygon Roughness, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 17.2584, Mean = 29.7439, Max = 463.1582, Min = 12.6032, sd = 55.9678, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PmdRgh [Column EW, numeric]: median Polygon Roughness, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 16.2318, Mean = 26.4861, Max = 465.1824, Min = 10.6901, sd = 57.3597, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PsdRgh [Column EX, numeric]: standard deviation Polygon Roughness, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 6.0514, Mean = 24.3267, Max = 380.0415, Min = 1.3339, sd = 52.9337, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PavOri [Column EY, numeric]: mean Polygon Orientation in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 0.5365, Mean = 9.6061, Max = 28.6301, Min = 87.5221, sd = 28.0601, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PsdOri [Column EZ, numeric]: standard deviation Polygon Orientation in degrees. Summary stats: Median = 47.799, Mean = 47.0872, Max = 75.4057, Min = 0.1713, sd = 8.6852, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PavCnA [Column FA, numeric]: mean Polygon Convex Area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.2791, Mean = 2.7079, Max = 186.9237, Min = 0.0308, sd = 17.2125, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PmdCnA [Column FB, numeric]: median Polygon Convex Area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.0963, Mean = 0.3877, Max = 9.8662, Min = 0.0025, sd = 1.1579, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PsdCnA [Column FC, numeric]: standard deviation Polygon Convex Area in mm2. Summary stats: Median = 0.5416, Mean = 13.9128, Max = 770.6418, Min = 0.0343, sd = 72.1303, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PavSld [Column FD, numeric]: mean Polygon Solidity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.9091, Mean = 0.902, Max = 0.9635, Min = 0.641, sd = 0.0414, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PmdSld [Column FE, numeric]: median Polygon Solidity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.921, Mean = 0.9152, Max = 0.963, Min = 0.6308, sd = 0.0422, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PsdSld [Column FF, numeric]: standard deviation Polygon Solidity, dimensionless. Summary stats: Median = 0.06, Mean = 0.0645, Max = 0.2315, Min = 0.0242, sd = 0.0261, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PavDav [Column FG, numeric]: mean Polygon average Distance to the vein network in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0506, Mean = 0.0585, Max = 0.2801, Min = 0.0249, sd = 0.0352, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PmdDav [Column FH, numeric]: median Polygon average Distance to the vein network in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0458, Mean = 0.0524, Max = 0.2873, Min = 0.009, sd = 0.0373, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PsdDav [Column FI, numeric]: standard deviation Polygon average Distance to the vein network in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0257, Mean = 0.035, Max = 0.1904, Min = 0.007, sd = 0.0303, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PavDmx [Column FJ, numeric]: mean Polygon maximum Distance to the vein network in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1302, Mean = 0.1542, Max = 0.7679, Min = 0.0633, sd = 0.0988, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.
* PmdDmx [Column FK, numeric]: median Polygon maximum Distance to the vein network in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.1135, Mean = 0.1349, Max = 0.77, Min = 0.0184, sd = 0.1022, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2
* PsdDmx [Column FL, numeric]: standard deviation Polygon maximum Distance to the vein network in mm. Summary stats: Median = 0.0718, Mean = 0.1013, Max = 0.6438, Min = 0.0182, sd = 0.093, NA = 0, Number of significant digits = 2.“Spp_code_HLD.csv” [data frame: 25 columns x variable number of rows]
* name [Column A, character]: image file name.
* nodeID [Column B, numeric]: the ID of each node in the dualgraph. During the HLD, new nodes are added that combine the polygonal areas that are fused.
* widthThreshold [Column C, numeric]: width, in mm, of the intervening vein removed during each fusion event.
* nodeArea [Column D, numeric]: area of the polygons arising from each fusion event in mm2.
* nodeDegree [Column E, numeric]: number of the original polygons that have fused prior to each node in the tree.
* degreeAsymmetry [Column F, numeric]: weighted mean value of the asymmetry of the node degrees, dimensionless.
* subtreeDegreeAsymmetry [Column G, numeric]: weighted mean value of the asymmetry of the subtree degrees, dimensionless.
* areaAsymmetry [Column H, numeric]: weighted mean value of the asymmetry of the node areas, dimensionless.
* subtreeAreaAsymmetry [Column I, numeric]: weighted mean value of the asymmetry of the subtree areas, dimensionless.
* nodeHortonStrahler [Column J, numeric]: HortonStrahler number, dimensionless.
* Area [Column K, numeric]: area of the new fused polygon in mm2.
* Perimeter [Column L, numeric]: perimeter of the new fused polygon in mm.
* MajorAxisLength [Column M, numeric]: major axis length of the new fused polygon in mm.
* MinorAxisLength [Column N, numeric]: minor axis length of the new fused polygon in mm.
* Eccentricity [Column O, numeric]: eccentricity of the new fused polygon, dimensionless.
* Orientation [Column P, numeric]: orientation of the new fused polygon in degrees.
* Circularity [Column Q, numeric]: circularity of the new fused polygon, dimensionless.
* Elongation [Column R, numeric]: elongation of the new fused polygon, dimensionless.
* Roughness [Column S, numeric]: roughness of the new fused polygon, dimensionless.
* VTotLen [Column T, numeric]: total length of the remaining network after vein removal in mm.
* VTotVol [Column U, numeric]: total volume of the remaining network after vein removal in mm3.
* MSTLength [Column V, numeric]: length of the MST for the network, dimensionless.
* MSTRatio [Column W, numeric]: ratio of the MST for the network divided by the total length, dimensionless.
* Boundary [Column Y, categorical]: flag to indicate whether the polygon is touching the boundary; levels = 1  touching the boundary, 0 = not touching the boundary.
* vein_density [Colum Z, numeric]: calculated as the length of all vein segments (VTotLen) divided by the area of the leaf sample (TotA) in mm mm2.
Sharing/Access information
Links to other publicly accessible locations of the data:
 https://github.com/bblonder/leafarea  leafarea macro to obtain the onesided leaf area (LA, cm− 2);
 https://github.com/bblonder/leaf_venation_cnn_adaptive_threshold/blob/main/  code for convolutional neural network (CNN) training;
 https://github.com/bblonder/leaf_venation_cnn_adaptive_threshold/blob/main/utils.py  code for prediction with adaptive thresholding.
Code/Software
Leaf mechanical traits: during the mechanical tests (shearing, punching and bending) force and displacement data were automatically recorded with a force gauge (M55 or M520, Mark10, Copiague, NY, USA) and a travel display (ESM0001, Mitutoyo, Aurora, IL, USA) connected to the MESUR™ lite software version 1.3 (https://mark10.com/products/software/mesurlite/, Mark10 Inc., 2019) and then exported as CSV files (“DataS1/venation_function/force_displacement_curves”). The dimensions (thickness and/or width) of leaf samples used during the mechanical tests were measured with a digital caliper (01407A, NEIKO Electronic Digital Caliper, China) and manually recorded in a datasheet paper (see “DataS1/datasheets/UTM_datasheet.png”).
Leaf hydraulic traits: pressures in the EFM system (used to measure Kleaf max, P50, P88, and ?Kleaf) were automatically recorded at every second with two pressure transducers (model PX26001GV, Omega Engineering, Norwalk, CT, USA) interfaced to a data logging system (U6 USB, Labjack, Lakewood, CO, USA) in DAQFactory express (https://www.azeotech.com/j/downloads.html) version 16.1 (Azoetech Inc., 2019), and then exported as CSV files. CSV files were then compiled into three CSV files containing the pressure measurements used to calculate Kleaf max (“DataS1/venation_function/hydraulics/UCBG_venation_kmax.csv”), ?Kleaf (“DataS1/venation_function/hydraulics/UCBG_venation_Dkleaf.csv”), and P50/P88 (“DataS1/venation_function/hydraulics/UCBG_venation_VC.csv”). The initial (P0_MPa) and final leaf water potentials (Pf_MPa) measured using a pressure chamber (model 1505D, PMS, Albany, OR, USA) were manually recorded on a printed datasheet paper (see “DataS1/datasheets/EFM_datasheet.png”). The leaf (L_temp_C) and water temperatures (W_temp_C), the color and length of the PEEK tubings (Rtube), and the start and end time of each EFM measurement were also recorded in the same datasheet. Leaf area (used to calculate Kleaf normalized by area) was obtained by scanning the leaves and using the ImageJ software (https://imagej.nih.gov/) version 1.53t and ‘leafarea’ macro (https://github.com/bblonder/leafarea) to obtain the leaf area, which were also manually recorded in the same printed datasheet paper.
Leaf anatomical traits: microscopic images of the leaf crosssections were obtained with a camera (DSFi1, Nikon, Melville, NY, USA) connected to a microscope (DM 2000, Leica, Nußloch, Germany) and saved in TIFF format. Those images were analyzed in ImageJ (https://imagej.nih.gov/) version 1.53t, for the measurement of xylem cell wall minimum and maximum diameters and double wall thickness. Those measurements were saved in a CSV file (“DataS1/venation_function/UCBG_venation_anatomy.csv”).
Leaf physiological traits: were obtained with a photosynthesis analyzer (LICOR 6800, LICOR, Lincoln, NE, USA). Log files were saved in CSV format (see “DataS1/venation_function/LICOR_logs”).
Leaf economic traits: leaf fresh (wet_leaf) and dry mass (dry_leaf) were measured in mg with a precision scale (0.001g; B2Series, VWR, Radnor, PA, USA) and manually recorded in a printed datasheet paper (“DataS1/datasheets/Economic_datasheet.png”). The number of leaves (n_leaf), the date when the samples were stored in the oven to dry (oven_in) and the leaf areas (area_leaf) were also recorded in this same datasheet. Leaf area was obtained by scanning the leaves and using the ImageJ software (https://imagej.nih.gov/) version 1.53t and ‘leafarea’ macro (https://github.com/bblonder/leafarea).
Leaf venation form traits: leaf cleared images were obtained with a 100 mm macro objective lens (Tokina, Huntington Beach, CA, USA) and color camera (EOS 6D, Canon, SouthendonSea, UK) and saved as PNG files (“DataS1/venation_form/images”). Leaf images were imported to
LeafVeinCNN software and the leaf venation form traits for veins, nodes, areoles, polygons and HLD (multiscale statistics) were extracted and saved as CSV files (“DataS1/venation_form/data”).
Methods
Leaf venation architecture and functional traits were measured on 122 species of ferns and angiosperms species collected from the UCBG living collections. The sampled species are distributed among 112 families and 56 orders, and include species in different plant clades (ferns, basal angiosperms (including ANITA and magnoliids), monocots, basal eudicots, rosids, and asterids), with different growth forms (aquatic, herb, climbing, tree, shrub) and from all continents, except Antarctica. Our sampling approach aimed to maximize both the phylogenetic coverage and the evolutionary distinctiveness.
For each of the 122 species, we either sampled branches (> 1 meter long branch) from a single individual per species in the case of woody species, or from 15 whole individuals in the case of herbaceous species. Samples were collected in the morning (911 AM), brought to a UCBG research greenhouse, recut under water, rehydrated overnight, and then used for the measurement of leaf architecture and functional traits. As most of the leaf traits measured in this study are destructive, we used different leaves for the measurement of each trait.
To describe how efficiently water flows through the leaf venation network, we measure the maximum leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf max, mmol m2 s1 MPa1). Kleaf max measurements were performed on 310 fully rehydrated (leaf water potential > 0.5 MPa) and mature leaves per species (N = 122 species) using the evaporative flux method with a pressuredrop flow meter. In addition to Kleafmax, we also measured maximum assimilation rate (Amax, µmol m2 s1) and maximum stomatal conductance rate to water vapor (gsmax, mmol m2 s1) as proxies for flow efficiency. Amax and gsmax were measured on 34 intact leaves per species (N = 34 species) using a portable photosynthesis analyzer (LICOR 6800, LICOR, Lincoln, NE, USA). Measurements were conducted between 10 AM and 3 PM during sunny and cool days in November 2021. To obtain the maximum values of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, we set the LICOR environmental parameters as follow: 1,200 µmol m2 s1 photosynthetic photon flux density, 25 °C leaf temperature, 0.7 kPa vapor pressure deficit, and 412 mmol mol1 CO2 concentration. Measurements were initiated by selecting mature and sunny exposed leaves, which were then sealed in the LICOR leaf chamber.
To describe the network ability to avoid physical damage caused by embolisms (i.e. formation and propagation of air bubbles inside the xylem vessels) we measured the leaf water potentials inducing 50% (P50, MPa) and 88% loss (P88, MPa) of leaf hydraulic conductance. To obtain P50 and P88 values, we constructed vulnerability curves using the EFM method. To describe the xylem resistance to implosion (i.e. resistance to collapse of xylem cell walls under negative pressure), we measured the cell implosion safety index (ISI, dimensionless) from leaf crosssectional anatomical images of all 122 species. To describe the network ability to avoid physical damage caused by herbivores, we measured punch strength (PS, kN m2), punch specific strength (PSS, kN m2 m1), work to punch (WP, J m2), specific work to punch (SWP, kJ m2 m1), shear strength (SS, MN m2), work to shear (WS, J m1 ), and specific work to shear (SWS, kJ m2). While the shear and punch strength describes the maximum stress at which the leaf cracks (due to the shearing or punching forces), the specific work to shear and specific work to punch, indicates the amount of work done, or energy required, to shear or to punch a leaf per unit leaf thickness. To quantify species capacity to resist herbivory via chemical defenses (i.e. via production of secondary metabolites) we also quantified the total phenols (Phe) in dried leaves using the Folin–Ciocalteu (F–C) method.
To describe the network's ability to maintain flow after physical damages have occurred, we measured the change in Kleaf (ΔKleaf) after simulated herbivory. To simulate herbivory, we performed two different treatments (midrib and lamina) by either cutting the leaf midrib (and keeping the lamina intact) or by cutting the leaf lamina. 48 hours after the damage, we excised the damaged leaves and measured Kleaf using the EFM method.
To describe venation network capacity to support the leaf upright against gravity, wind and other bending forces, we measured the leaf flexural stiffness (Σ, mN m2 m1) and the leaf modulus of elasticity (ε, MN m2) by conducting 3point bending tests using the UTM machine (Test stand ES30, force gauge M520, bending fixtures G109597, Mark10, Copiague, NY, USA).
To describe the total amount of resources invested in constructing the leaf, we measured leaf mass per area (LMA, g m2), specific leaf area (SLA, m2 kg1), leaf dry mass content (LDMC, mg g1) following standard protocols.
To obtain leaf venation architecture traits, we first pressed fresh leaves until flat and gently removed trichomes and spores (if present) under a dissecting microscope. Next, we placed the pressed and cleaned leaf samples inside a labeled mesh envelope and subjected them to standard chemical processes of clearing and staining. The cleared leaf samples were imaged using a 100 mm macro objective lens (Tokina, Huntington Beach, CA, USA) and color camera (EOS 6D, Canon, SouthendonSea, UK). The leaf cleared images were analyzed in Matlab (Mathworks, Natick, MA, USA) using LeafVeinCNN software versions 1.0.7 and newer. LeafVeinCNN relies on an ensemble of three convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to automatically segment veins and produce a spatial graph representation of the entire venation network. After segmenting and producing the spatial graphs of the entire leaf venation network, LeafVeinCNN calculates several singlescale venation architecture traits to describe the architectural characteristics of all veins (edges), nodes (point of connection between two or more veins), areoles or loops (regions wholly enclosed by veins, or enclosed by veins and leaf boundary), and polygonal areas (area inside the areole) in the network. LeafVeinCNN also uses hierarchical loop decomposition (HLD) algorithms to extract multiscale venation statistics, which describe how the venation network architecture vary across vein spatial scales (i.e. across vein sizes).