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Depth inversion with a 3D structure influences brightness perception

Citation

Arai, Tetsuya et al. (2019), Depth inversion with a 3D structure influences brightness perception, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.1jwstqjqb

Abstract

Whether or not depth perception influences brightness and/or lightness perception has been repeatedly discussed, and some studies have emphasized its importance. In addition, a small number of studies have empirically tested and shown the effect of depth inversion, such as seen in the Mach card illusion, on perceived lightness, and they interpreted such results in terms of lightness constancy. However, how perceived brightness changes contingent on depth inversion remains unexplained. Therefore, this study used the matching method to examine changes in brightness perception when depth inversion is observed. We created and used a three-dimensional (3D) concave object, composed of three sides made of card stock, which could be perceived as having two different shapes in 3D; it could be perceived as a horizontal concave object, corresponding to its actual physical structure, and as a convex standing object, similar in shape to a building. Participants observed this object as both a concave object and as a convex object, and judged the brightness of its surfaces during each observation. Our results show that the perception of the brightness of the object’s surfaces clearly changed depending on the perception of depth. When the object was seen as convex, one part of the surface was perceived as darker than when the object was seen as concave, but the other part of the surface remained unchanged. Here we discuss the relationship between depth perception and brightness perception in terms of perceptual organization.