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Data from: An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola)

Citation

Vasilikopoulos, Alexandros et al. (2020), Data from: An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola) , Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.1jwstqjrs

Abstract

Background

The latest advancements in DNA sequencing technologies have facilitated the resolution of the phylogeny of insects, yet parts of the tree of Holometabola remain unresolved. The phylogeny of Neuropterida has been extensively studied, but no strong consensus exists concerning the phylogenetic relationships within the order Neuroptera, and the timeline of diversification of thelineages of Neuropterida. Here, we assembled a novel transcriptomic dataset to address previously unresolved issues in the phylogeny of Neuropterida and to infer divergence times within the group. We tested the robustness of our phylogenetic estimates by comparing summary coalescent and concatenation-based phylogenetic approaches and by employing different quartet-based measures of phylogenomic incongruence, combined with data permutations.

Results

Our results suggest that the order Raphidioptera is sister to Neuroptera + Megaloptera. Coniopterygidae was inferred as sister to all remaining neuropteran families, indicating that larval cryptonephry could be a ground plan feature of Neuroptera. A clade that includes Nevrorthidae, Osmylidae, and Sisyridae (i.e. Osmyloidea) was inferred as sister to all other Neuroptera except Coniopterygidae. Dilaridae was placed as sister to all remaining families except Coniopterygidae and Osmyloidea. Ithonidae was inferred as sister group to monophyletic Myrmeleontiformia. The phylogenetic affinities of Chrysopidae and Hemerobiidae were dependent on the data type analyzed, and quartet-based analyses showed only weak support for the placement of Hemerobiidae as sister to Ithonidae + Myrmeleontiformia. Our molecular dating analyses suggest that most families of Neuropterida started to diversify in the Jurassic, while the common ancestor of extant Neuropterida was estimated to have lived in the middle of the Carboniferous.

Conclusion

Our extensive phylogenomic analyses consolidate several aspects in the backbone phylogeny of Neuropterida, such as the basal placement of Coniopterygidae within Neuroptera and the monophyly of Osmyloidea. Furthermore, they provide new insights into the timing of diversification of Neuropterida. Despite the vast amount of analyzed molecular data, we found that certain nodes in the tree of Neuroptera are not robustly resolved. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of integrating the results of morphological analyses with those of sequence-based phylogenomics. We also suggest that comparative analyses of genomic meta-characters should be incorporated into future phylogenomic studies of Neuropterida.

Methods

Supplementary data deposited on DRYAD and README of the study Vasilikopoulos et al. (2020): An integrative phylogenmic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola). BMC Evolutionary Biology. DOI: 10.1186/s12862-020-01631-6.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China, Award: 31972871

National Natural Science Foundation of China, Award: 31672322