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Additional references for: Brain arteriovenous malformations: a review of natural history, pathobiology, and interventions

Citation

Sheehan, Jason; Chen, Ching-Jen (2020), Additional references for: Brain arteriovenous malformations: a review of natural history, pathobiology, and interventions, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.1ns1rn8rj

Abstract

Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are anomalous direct shunts between cerebral arteries and veins that convalesce into a vascular nidus. The treatment strategies for AVMs are challenging and variable. Intracranial hemorrhage and seizures comprise the most common presentations of AVMs. However, incidental AVMs are being diagnosed with increasing frequency due to widespread use of noninvasive neuroimaging. The balance between the estimated cumulative lifetime hemorrhage risk versus the risk of intervention is often the major determinant for treatment. Current management options include surgical resection, embolization, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and observation. Complete nidal obliteration is the goal of AVM intervention. The risks and benefits of interventions vary and can be employed in a combinatorial fashion. Resection of the AVM nidus affords high rates of immediate obliteration, but it is invasive and carries a moderate risk of neurological morbidity. AVM embolization is minimally invasive, but cure can only be achieved in a minority of lesions. SRS is also minimally invasive and has little immediate morbidity, but AVM obliteration occurs in a delayed fashion, so the patient remains at risk for hemorrhage during the latency period. Whether obliteration can be achieved in unruptured AVMs with a lower risk of stroke or death compared to the natural history of AVMs remains controversial. Over the past 5 years, multicenter prospective and retrospective studies describing AVM natural history and treatment outcomes have been published. This review provides a contemporary and comprehensive discussion of the natural history, pathobiology, and interventions for brain AVMs. 

Usage Notes

Additional References for the manuscript beyond number 60