Functional and ecomorphological evolution of orbit shape in Mesozoic archosaurs is driven by body size and diet: Geometric morphometric data, 3D models (stl files), FEA models (Hypermesh, Abaqus files)
Lautenschlager, Stephan (2022), Functional and ecomorphological evolution of orbit shape in Mesozoic archosaurs is driven by body size and diet: Geometric morphometric data, 3D models (stl files), FEA models (Hypermesh, Abaqus files), Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.1rn8pk0wz
The orbit is one of several skull openings in the archosauromorph skull. Intuitively, it could be assumed that orbit shape would closely approximate the shape and size of the eyeball resulting in a predominantly circular morphology. However, a quantification of orbit shape across Archosauromorpha using a geometric morphometric approach demonstrates a large morphological diversity despite the fact that the majority of species retained a circular orbit. This morphological diversity is nearly exclusively driven by large (skull length > 1000 mm) and carnivorous species in all studied archosauromorph groups, but particularly prominently in theropod dinosaurs. While circular orbit shapes are retained in most herbivores and smaller species, as well as in juveniles and early ontogenetic stages, large carnivores adopted elliptical and keyhole-shaped orbits. Biomechanical modeling using finite element analysis reveals that these morphologies are beneficial in mitigating and dissipating feeding-induced stresses without additional reinforcement of the bony structure of the skull.
- Landmark data for GMM analyses
- STL files of hypothetical plate models, simplified skull models, and Tyrannosaurus skull models
- Hypermesh models
- Abaqus files