Data from: Genomic data reveal deep genetic structure but no support for current taxonomic designation in a grasshopper species complex
Tonzo, Vanina; Papadopoulou, Anna; Ortego, Joaquin (2019), Data from: Genomic data reveal deep genetic structure but no support for current taxonomic designation in a grasshopper species complex, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.249v096
Taxonomy has traditionally relied on morphological and ecological traits to interpret and classify biological diversity. Over the last decade, technological advances and conceptual developments in the field of molecular ecology and systematics have eased the generation of genomic data and changed the paradigm of biodiversity analysis. Here we illustrate how traditional taxonomy has led to species designations that are supported neither by high throughput sequencing data nor by the quantitative integration of genomic information with other sources of evidence. Specifically, we focus on Omocestus antigai and O. navasi, two montane grasshoppers from the Pyrenean region that were originally described based on quantitative phenotypic differences and distinct habitat associations (alpine vs. Mediterranean-montane habitats). To validate current taxonomic designations, test species boundaries, and understand the factors that have contributed to genetic divergence, we obtained phenotypic (geometric morphometrics) and genome-wide SNP data (ddRADSeq) from populations covering the entire known distribution of the two taxa. Coalescent-based phylogenetic reconstructions, integrative Bayesian model-based species delimitation, and landscape genetic analyses revealed that populations assigned to the two taxa show a spatial distribution of genetic variation that do not match with current taxonomic designations and is incompatible with ecological/environmental speciation. Our results support little phenotypic variation among populations and a marked genetic structure that is mostly explained by geographic distances and limited population connectivity across the abrupt landscapes characterizing the study region. Overall, this study highlights the importance of integrative approaches to identify taxonomic units and elucidate the evolutionary history of species.