Data from: Evolution of fitness trade-offs in locally adapted populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens
Schick, Alana; Bailey, Susan F.; Kassen, Rees (2015), Data from: Evolution of fitness trade-offs in locally adapted populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.254s7
Local adaptation seems to be common in natural systems, but the genetic causes of its evolution remain poorly understood. Here we characterize the genetic causes of trade-offs generating local adaptation in populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens that had previously been evolved for specialization on three different carbon resources. We measured the fitness effects of mutations that arose during selection in that environment and in alternative environments to quantify the degree of specialization. We find that all mutations are beneficial in the environment of selection and that those arising later during adaptation are associated with increasingly antagonistic effects in alternative environments compared with those arising earlier, consistent with a multioptima version of Fisher’s geometric model of adaptation. We also find that fitness of pairs of beneficial mutations are consistently less than additive in selection environments, producing a pattern of diminishing returns, but are more variable in alternative environments, being either positive or negative. Finally, we find that mutations in genes associated with loss of motility are beneficial across all environments, whereas mutations involving other functions, such as gene regulation, had more variable effects, being more environment specific. Taken together, these results provide a detailed account of the genetics of specialization and suggest that the evolution of trade-offs associated with local adaptation may often result from the antagonistic effects of beneficial mutations substituted later in adaptation.