# Data from: Inference of facultative mobility in the enigmatic Ediacaran organism Parvancorina

Darroch, Simon A.F., University of Toronto

Rahman, Imran A., Oxford University Museum of Natural History

Gibson, Brandt, Vanderbilt University

Racicot, Rachel A., Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County

Laflamme, Marc, University of Toronto

Darroch, Simon A. F., Vanderbilt University

Published May 18, 2017 on Dryad.
https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.2601h

## Cite this dataset

Darroch, Simon A.F. et al. (2017). Data from: Inference of facultative mobility in the enigmatic Ediacaran organism Parvancorina [Dataset]. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.2601h

## Abstract

Establishing how Ediacaran organisms moved and fed is critical to deciphering their ecological and evolutionary significance, but has long been confounded by their non-analogue body plans. Here, we use computational fluid dynamics to quantitatively analyze water flow around the Ediacaran taxon Parvancorina, thereby testing between competing models for feeding mode and mobility. The results show that flow was not distributed evenly across the organism, but was directed towards localized areas; this allows us to reject osmotrophy, and instead supports either suspension feeding or detritivory. Moreover, the patterns of recirculating flow differ substantially with orientation to the current, suggesting that if Parvancorina was a suspension feeder, it would have been most efficient if it was able to re-orient itself with respect to current direction, and thus ensure flow was directed towards feeding structures. Our simulations also demonstrate that the amount of drag varied with orientation, indicating that Parvancorina would have greatly benefited from adjusting its position to minimize drag. Inference of facultative mobility in Parvancorina suggests that Ediacaran benthic ecosystems might have possessed a higher proportion of mobile taxa than currently appreciated from trace fossil studies. Furthermore, this inference of movement suggests the presence of musculature or appendages which aren’t preserved in fossils, supporting a bilaterian affinity for Parvancorina.

## Usage notes

#### 3-D model of Parvancorina minchami from South Australia in STL format

A freely-available reconstruction of Parvancorina minchami from South Australia in dorsal view (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parvancorina#/media/File:Parvancorina_species.png) was imported into the open-source 3-D creation program Blender (http://www.blender.org) and used as a reference to guide box modelling of the shield-shaped base. The file was exported from Blender in STL format and converted into a non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) surface (IGES format) in Geomagic Studio 2012 (http://www.geomagic.com). This IGES format file was then imported into the commercial simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics (https://uk.comsol.com/), where the raised T-shaped ridge was digitally modelled with a half torus, a cylinder, and three spheres. The final model was exported from COMSOL in STL format.

P_minchami_Australia.stl

#### 3-D model of Parvancorina minchami from Russia in STL format

A freely-available reconstruction of Parvancorina minchami from Russia in dorsal view (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parvancorina#/media/File:Parvancorina_species.png) was imported into the open-source 3-D creation program Blender (http://www.blender.org) and used as a reference to guide box modelling of the shield-shaped base. The file was exported from Blender in STL format and converted into a non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) surface (IGES format) in Geomagic Studio 2012 (http://www.geomagic.com). This IGES format file was then imported into the commercial simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics (https://uk.comsol.com/), where the raised T-shaped ridge was digitally modelled with a half torus, a cylinder, and three spheres. The final model was exported from COMSOL in STL format.

P_minchami_White_Sea.stl

#### 3-D model of Parvancorina sagitta from Russia in STL format

A freely-available reconstruction of Parvancorina sagitta from Russia in dorsal view (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parvancorina#/media/File:Parvancorina_species.png) was imported into the open-source 3-D creation program Blender (http://www.blender.org) and used as a reference to guide box modelling of the shield-shaped base. The file was exported from Blender in STL format and converted into a non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) surface (IGES format) in Geomagic Studio 2012 (http://www.geomagic.com). This IGES format file was then imported into the commercial simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics (https://uk.comsol.com/), where the raised T-shaped ridge was digitally modelled with a half torus, a cylinder, and three spheres. The final model was exported from COMSOL in STL format.

P_sagitta.stl

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from South Australia, original relief, oriented at 0° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from South Australia with original relief was oriented at 0° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_Australia_1.00xRelief_0degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from South Australia, original relief, oriented at 90° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from South Australia with original relief was oriented at 90° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_Australia_1.00xRelief_90degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from South Australia, original relief, oriented at 180° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from South Australia with original relief was oriented at 180° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_Australia_1.00xRelief_180degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from South Australia, relief increased by 15%, oriented at 0° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from South Australia with relief increased by 15% was oriented at 0° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_Australia_1.15xRelief_0degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from South Australia, relief increased by 15%, oriented at 90° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from South Australia with relief increased by 15% was oriented at 90° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_Australia_1.15xRelief_90degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from South Australia, relief increased by 15%, oriented at 180° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from South Australia with relief increased by 15% was oriented at 180° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_Australia_1.15xRelief_180degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from South Australia, relief increased by 30%, oriented at 0° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from South Australia with relief increased by 30% was oriented at 0° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_Australia_1.30xRelief_0degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from South Australia, relief increased by 30%, oriented at 90° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from South Australia with relief increased by 30% was oriented at 90° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_Australia_1.30xRelief_90degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from South Australia, relief increased by 30%, oriented at 180° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from South Australia with relief increased by 30% was oriented at 180° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_Australia_1.30xRelief_180degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for null model of Parvancorina minchami from South Australia, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A null model of Parvancorina minchami from South Australia was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_Australia_1.00xRelief_0degrees_NULL.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from Russia, original relief, oriented at 0° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from Russia with original relief was oriented at 0° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_White_Sea_1.00xRelief_0degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from Russia, original relief, oriented at 90° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from Russia with original relief was oriented at 90° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_White_Sea_1.00xRelief_90degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from Russia, original relief, oriented at 180° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from Russia with original relief was oriented at 180° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_White_Sea_1.00xRelief_180degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from Russia, relief increased by 15%, oriented at 0° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from Russia with relief increased by 15% was oriented at 0° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_White_Sea_1.15xRelief_0degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from Russia, relief increased by 15%, oriented at 90° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from Russia with relief increased by 15% was oriented at 90° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_White_Sea_1.15xRelief_90degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from Russia, relief increased by 15%, oriented at 180° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from Russia with relief increased by 15% was oriented at 180° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_White_Sea_1.15xRelief_180degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from Russia, relief increased by 30%, oriented at 0° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from Russia with relief increased by 30% was oriented at 0° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_White_Sea_1.30xRelief_0degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from Russia, relief increased by 30%, oriented at 90° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from Russia with relief increased by 30% was oriented at 90° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_White_Sea_1.30xRelief_90degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina minchami from Russia, relief increased by 30%, oriented at 180° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina minchami from Russia with relief increased by 30% was oriented at 180° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_White_Sea_1.30xRelief_180degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for null model of Parvancorina minchami from Russia, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A null model of Parvancorina minchami from Russia was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_minchami_White_Sea_1.00xRelief_0degrees_NULL.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina sagitta from Russia, original relief, oriented at 0° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina sagitta from Russia with original relief was oriented at 0° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_sagitta_1.00xRelief_0degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina sagitta from Russia, original relief, oriented at 90° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina sagitta from Russia with original relief was oriented at 90° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_sagitta_1.00xRelief_90degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina sagitta from Russia, original relief, oriented at 180° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina sagitta from Russia with original relief was oriented at 180° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_sagitta_1.00xRelief_180degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina sagitta from Russia, relief increased by 15%, oriented at 0° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina sagitta from Russia with relief increased by 15% was oriented at 0° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_sagitta_1.15xRelief_0degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina sagitta from Russia, relief increased by 15%, oriented at 90° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina sagitta from Russia with relief increased by 15% was oriented at 90° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_sagitta_1.15xRelief_90degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina sagitta from Russia, relief increased by 15%, oriented at 180° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina sagitta from Russia with relief increased by 15% was oriented at 180° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_sagitta_1.15xRelief_180degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina sagitta from Russia, relief increased by 30%, oriented at 0° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina sagitta from Russia with relief increased by 30% was oriented at 0° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_sagitta_1.30xRelief_0degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina sagitta from Russia, relief increased by 30%, oriented at 90° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina sagitta from Russia with relief increased by 30% was oriented at 90° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_sagitta_1.30xRelief_90degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for Parvancorina sagitta from Russia, relief increased by 30%, oriented at 180° to the current, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A model of Parvancorina sagitta from Russia with relief increased by 30% was oriented at 180° to the current and was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_sagitta_1.30xRelief_180degrees.mph

#### CFD simulation file for null model of Parvancorina sagitta from Russia, MPH format

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of water flow were performed in COMSOL. A null model of Parvancorina sagitta from Russia was fixed to the lower surface of a half-cylinder. Three-dimensional, incompressible flow of water was simulated with a normal inflow velocity inlet at the upstream end of the half-cylinder and a zero-pressure outlet at the downstream end. Slip boundary conditions were assigned to the top and sides of the half-cylinder, and no-slip boundary conditions were assigned to the Parvancorina model and the lower surface of the half-cylinder. The domain was meshed using free tetrahedral elements and the shear stress transport turbulence model was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. A stationary solver was used to compute the steady-state flow patterns. Simulations were performed with an inlet velocity of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s.

P_sagitta_1.00xRelief_0degrees_NULL.mph