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Phylogenomic data reveal widespred introgression across the range of an alpine and arctic specialist

Citation

Funk, Erik et al. (2020), Phylogenomic data reveal widespred introgression across the range of an alpine and arctic specialist, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.31zcrjdg9

Abstract

Understanding how gene flow affects population divergence and speciation remains challenging. Differentiating one evolutionary process from another can be difficult because multiple processes can produce similar patterns, and more than one process can occur simultaneously. While simple population models produce predictable results, how these processes balance in taxa with patchy distributions and complicated natural histories is less certain. These types of populations might be highly connected through migration (gene flow), but can experience stronger effects of genetic drift and inbreeding, or localized selection. While different signals can be difficult to separate, the application of high throughput sequence data can provide the resolution necessary to distinguish many of these processes. We present whole genome sequence data for an avian species group with an alpine and arctic tundra distribution to examine the role that different population genetic processes have played in their evolutionary history. Rosy-finches inhabit high elevation mountaintop sky islands and high-latitude island and continental tundra. They exhibit extensive plumage variation coupled with low levels of genetic variation. Additionally, the number of species within the complex is debated, making them excellent for studying the forces involved in the process of diversification, as well as an important species group in which to investigate species boundaries. Total genomic variation suggests a broadly continuous pattern of allele frequency changes across the mainland taxa of this group in North America. However, phylogenomic analyses recover multiple distinct, well supported, groups that coincide with previously described morphological variation and current species-level taxonomy. Tests of introgression using D-statistics and approximate Bayesian computation reveal significant levels of introgression between multiple North American taxa. These results provide insight into the balance between divergent and homogenizing population genetic processes, and highlight remaining challenges in interpreting conflict between different types of analytical approaches with whole genome sequence data.

Methods

Shallow whole genome sequence data of 67 rosy-finch individuals across 4 species. VCF file includes quality filtered snps, but no other filters have been applied. See NCBI SRA BioProject PRJNA659436 for raw fastqs, and TreeBASE for alignments and tree files (http://purl.org/phylo/treebase/phylows/study/TB2:S26830).