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Are lifestyle pattern changes associated to poor subjective sleep quality?: a cross-sectional study by gender among the general Japanese population underwent specified medical checkups in 2014 and 2015.

Citation

Hidaka, Tomoo et al. (2020), Are lifestyle pattern changes associated to poor subjective sleep quality?: a cross-sectional study by gender among the general Japanese population underwent specified medical checkups in 2014 and 2015., Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.31zcrjdjn

Abstract

Objectives: Subjective sleep quality (SSQ) is defined by the satisfaction of one’s overall sleep experience, and is composed of sleep depth and restfulness. It has not been clarified how poor SSQ is associated to changes in lifestyles. The purpose is to reveal the association of lifestyle pattern changes and poor SSQ.

Design: A cross-sectional study.

Setting: The data on basic attributes, SSQ, and lifestyle such as presence/absence of smoking, exercise, physical activity, supper time close to bedtime, drinking habits, and alcohol intake amount per day were obtained from database and questionnaire of specified medical checkups in FY 2014 and 2015 in Japan. The analysis was conducted in 2019.

Participants: The subjects comprised 49,483 residents (26,087 males and 23,396 females), aged 40 to 74 years who had undergone an annual specified medical checkup from 2014 to 2015 in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

Outcome measure: Status of SSQ in 2015 was assessed using a question asking whether or not the subjects usually got enough sleep. Poor SSQ in 2015 and lifestyle pattern changes in 2014-2015 were compared between those who were in healthy status both in 2014 and 2015 (referent) and non-referent, using binary logistic regression analysis.

Results: Unhealthy lifestyle pattern for 2014-2015 was significantly associated to poor SSQ in 2015: “absent to absent” in exercise for males (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.472; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.316, 1.647) and females (OR = 1.428; 95%CI = 1.285, 1.587), physical activity for males (OR = 1.420; 95%CI = 1.270, 1.588) and females (OR = 1.471; 95%CI = 1.322, 1.638), and “present to present” in supper time for males (OR = 1.149; 95%CI = 1.020, 1.294) and females (OR = 1.288; 95%CI = 1.102, 1.505).

Conclusions: Health care workers may be able to contribute to the improvement of SSQ, focusing on changeable lifestyles.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, we used the data of 91,795 residents, aged 40 to 74 years, who had undergone an annual specified medical checkup in all years from 2014 to 2015 in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, by the National Health Insurance Organization. Of 91,795 residents, individuals who had poor SSQ in 2014 and whose data on age, gender, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), habits of smoking, exercise, physical activity, eating meals close to bedtime, drinking (frequency and volume of alcohol intake), and sleep quality were incomplete were excluded from the present study. The analysis was conducted in 2019, and the total number of participants was 49,483 (26,087 males and 23,396 females).

Usage Notes

This readme is for the dataset of the article entitled "Association between lifestyle pattern change and non-restorative sleep by gender among the general Japanese population: a cross-sectional study." in BMJ Open.

id: subject id.
gender: 1 = male; 2 = female.
2014Age: age in 2014.
2014BMI: BMI in 2014.
2014SBP: systolic blood pressure in 2014.
2014DBP: diastolic blood pressure in 2014.
2014FPG: fasting plasma glucose in 2014.
2014HbA1c:  hemoglobin A1C in 2014.
2014smoking: smoking habits; 1 = present, 2 = absent.
2014EX: exercise habits; 1 = present, 2 = absent.
2014PA: physical activity habits; 1 = present, 2 = absent.
2014meals: habits of eating meals close to bedtime; 1 = present, 2 = absent.
2014DF: drinking frequency; 1 = every day, 2 = sometimes, 3 = rarely drink (cannot drink).
2014AI: alcohol intake amount; 1 = < 1 glass per day, 2 = 1-2 glasses per day, 3 = 2-3 glasses per day, 4 = ≥ 3 glasses per day.
2014NRS: present of non-restorative sleep; 1 = absent, 2 = present.

Variables in 2015 were coded according to rules as same as those of 2014, and thus omitted.

2014BMI3class and 2015BMI3class: categorized BMI in 2014 and 2015; 1 = Underweight (< 18.5), 2 = Normal (≥ 18.5 and < 25), 3 = Overweight (≥ 25).
2014_2015BMI: change of BMI from 2014 to 2015; 1 = Normal to normal, 2 = Underweight/overweight to normal, 3 = Underweight/normal/overweight to underweight, 4 = Underweight/normal/overweight to overweight.
2014Hypertension and 2015Hypertension: presence/degree of hypertension; 1 = Normal, 2 = Elevated, 3 = Stage1, 4 = Stage2.
2014HT_binary and 2015HT_binary: dichotomized category of hypertension presence; 1 = present, 2 = absent.
2014_2015Hypertension: change of hypertension from 2014 to 2015; 1 = Absent to absent, 2 = Absent to present, 3 = Present to absent, 4 = Present to present.
2014Diabetes and 2015Diabetes: presence of diabetes; 1 = Present, 2 = Absent.
2014_2015Diabetes: change of diabetes from 2014 to 2015; 1 = Absent to absent, 2 = Absent to present, 3 = Present to absent, 4 = Present to present.
2014Smoking and 2015Smoking: presence of smoking habits; 1 = present, 2 = absent.
2014_2015Smoking: change of smoking habits from 2014 to 2015; 1 = Absent to absent, 2 = Absent to present, 3 = Present to absent, 4 = Present to present.
2014Exercise and 2015Exercise: presence of exercise habits; 1 = present, 2 = absent.
2014_2015Exercise: change of exercise habits from 2014 to 2015; 1 = Absent to absent, 2 = Absent to present, 3 = Present to absent, 4 = Present to present.
2014PhysicalActivity and 2015PhysicalActivity: presence of physical activity habits; 1 = present, 2 = absent.
2014_2015PhysicalActivity: change of physical activity habits from 2014 to 2015; 1 = Absent to absent, 2 = Absent to present, 3 = Present to absent, 4 = Present to present.
2014Supper and 2015Supper: presence of supper time close to bedtime; 1 = present, 2 = absent.
2014_2015Supper: change of supper time close to bedtime from 2014 to 2015; 1 = Absent to absent, 2 = Absent to present, 3 = Present to absent, 4 = Present to present.
2014DrinkHabit and 2015DrinkHabit: drinking frequency; 1 = Every day, 2 = Sometimes, 3 = Rarely/cannot drink.
2014Drink_binary and 2015Drink_binary: dichotomized category of drinking frequency (habits); 1 = present, 2 = absent.
2014_2015DrinkHabit: change of drinking habits from 2014 to 2015; 1 = Absent to absent, 2 = Absent to present, 3 = Present to absent, 4 = Present to present.
2014AlcoIntake and 2015AlcoIntake: alcohol intake amount per day; 1 = < 20 g, 2 = 20–39 g, 3 = 40–59 g, 4 = ≥ 60 g.
2014Alco_binary and 2015Alco_binary: dichotomized category of alcohol intake amount per day; 1 = binge, 2 = moderate.
2014_2015AlcoIntake: change of alcohol intake amount from 2014 to 2015; 1 = Moderate to moderate, 2 = Moderate to binge, 3 = Binge to moderate, 4 = Binge to binge.