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Historical biogeography and character-mapping of Hiptage (Malpighiaceae) corroborate Indochina's rainforests as one of the main sources of plant diversity in Southeastern Asia

Citation

Felipe de Almeida, Rafael; van den Berg, Cassio (2022), Historical biogeography and character-mapping of Hiptage (Malpighiaceae) corroborate Indochina's rainforests as one of the main sources of plant diversity in Southeastern Asia, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.34tmpg4mz

Abstract

In Malpighiaceae, Hiptage represents one of the seven past dispersal events from the Neotropics to the Paleotropical region, being by far the most widely diversified and distributed genus of Paleotropical Malpighiaceae. In this study, we tested the monophyly of the current infrageneric classification of Hiptage with a dated and calibrated molecular phylogeny. We also reconstructed ancestral areas to elucidate which route led to the colonization of Southeast Asia by the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of this genus (Mainland or Indian routes). The pre-existing infrageneric classification of Hiptage was recovered as non-monophyletic due to being solely based on homoplasic morphological characters, such as the presence and number of sepal nectar glands. Regarding its biogeography, the MRCA of Hiptage arose in the rainforests of southeast Asia ca. 24.0 Mya and greatly diversified in this region. Few lineages have dispersed eastward to the pacific islands or westwards to India. Based on our results, we hypothesize that the MRCA of Hiptage did not take the Indian route to reach Southeastern Asia. Instead, it reached this region by past mainland forest connections between North America-Europe (Boreotropical hypothesis) and southeast Asia. Nonetheless, distribution ranges for the species of Hiptage must be carefully revised, and the five species of Hiptage endemic to India must also be sampled so we can properly test which route led the MRCA of Hiptage to reach Southeast Asia in the early Miocene.

Usage Notes

Nexus matrixes and trees.

Funding

Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia