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Complex relationship between tunneling patterns and individual behaviors in termites

Citation

Mizumoto, Nobuaki; Bardunias, Paul; Pratt, Stephen (2020), Complex relationship between tunneling patterns and individual behaviors in termites, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.3bk3j9kfm

Abstract

The nests built by social insects are complex group-level structures that emerge from interactions among individuals following simple behavioral rules. Nest patterns vary among species, and the theory of complex systems predicts that there is no simple one-to-one relationship between variations in collective patterns and variation in individual behaviors. Therefore, a species-by-species comparison of the actual building process is essential to understand the mechanism producing diverse nest patterns. Here we compare tunnel formation of three termite species, and reveal two mechanisms producing interspecific variation: in one, a common behavioral rule yields distinct patterns via parameter-tuning; in the other, distinct rules produce similar patterns. We found that two related species transport sand in the same way using mandibles but build tunnels with different degree of branching. The variation arises from different probabilities of choosing between two behavioral options at crowded tunnel faces: excavating the sidewall to make a new branch or waiting for clearance to extend the current tunnel. We further discovered that a third species independently evolved low-branched patterns using different building rules; namely a bucket-brigade that can excavate a crowded tunnel. Our findings emphasize the importance of direct comparative study of collective behaviors at both individual- and group-levels.

Methods

All data is collected through image analysis and video analysis. See the method section of the paper and readme.txt.

Funding

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Award: 20J00660