Data from: Maintaining genetic diversity and population panmixia through dispersal and not gene flow in a holocyclic heteroecious aphid species
Michel, Andy P.; Orantes, Lucia C.; Zhang, Wei; Mian, M. A. Rouf (2012), Data from: Maintaining genetic diversity and population panmixia through dispersal and not gene flow in a holocyclic heteroecious aphid species, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.3hq923hn
Heteroecious holocyclic aphids exhibit both sexual and asexual reproduction and alternate among primary and secondary hosts. Most of these aphids can feed on several related hosts, and invasions to new habitats may limit the number of suitable hosts. For example, the aphid specialist Aphis glycines survives only on the primary host buckthorn (Rhamnus spp.) and the secondary host soybean (Glycine max) in North America where it is invasive. Owing to this specialization and sparse primary host distribution, host colonization events could be localized and involve founder effects, impacting genetic diversity, population structure and adaptation. We characterized changes in the genetic diversity and structure across time among A. glycines populations. Populations were sampled from secondary hosts twice in the same geographical location: once after secondary colonization (early season), and again immediately before primary host colonization (late season). We tested for evidence of founder effects and genetic isolation in early season populations, and whether or not late-season dispersal restored genetic diversity and reduced fragmentation. A total of 24 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 6 microsatellites were used for population genetic statistics. We found significantly lower levels of genotypic diversity and more genetic isolation among early season collections, indicating secondary host colonization occurred locally and involved founder effects. Pairwise FST decreased from 0.046 to 0.017 in early and late collections, respectively, and while genetic relatedness significantly decreased with geographical distance in early season collections, no spatial structure was observed in late-season collections. Thus, late-season dispersal counteracts the secondary host colonization through homogenization and increases genetic diversity before primary host colonization.