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Dryad

An environmental resistance model to inform the biogeography of aquatic invasions in complex stream networks

Cite this dataset

Olivos, J. Andres et al. (2024). An environmental resistance model to inform the biogeography of aquatic invasions in complex stream networks [Dataset]. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.3tx95x6jf

Abstract

Freshwater invasions are a global conservation issue. Emerging tools for biogeographical analyses can provide critical information for their effective management and monitoring. Here, we propose a method to assess the distribution of environmental resistance of stream ecosystems to biological invasions by coupling multi‐stage habitat potential models for non‐native species. Location: Andean Patagonia (Chile and Argentina).Taxa: North American beaver (Castor canadensis), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch). Methods: Environmental resistance to invasive species was mapped throughout a large region of Patagonia by stacking multi‐stage habitat relationships for each target species and assessing the complementation between critical habitats at multiple scales. We generated an environmental model of stream networks derived from high‐resolution topographic and climatic data representing 15,406 drainage basins (>1 km2) covering an area of 369,791 km2. We quantified the intrinsic potential of stream reaches (100 m and 1000 m) to sustain high‐quality habitats and assessed habitat complementation (i.e., abundance and proximity) at the sub‐basin scale as a proxy for environmental resistance. Results: Our model revealed high heterogeneity in the distribution of environmental resistance to invasions throughout the study region, providing case‐specific insights for the research and management of invaders. Conclusions: Environmental resistance modelling is a novel method to study the biogeography of riverine invasions. Our approach is compatible with additional sources of information about species and the environment and shows versatility to diverse invasion scenarios and data sources. This method can be useful in prioritising research and management of incipient and spreading invasions, especially for large and data‐poor regions.

README: An environmental resistance model to inform the biogeography of aquatic invasions in complex stream networks

https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.3tx95x6jf

Description of the data and file structure

Origin datasets

  • Digital Elevation Model (12.5-m resolution, ALOS PALSAR, JAXA/U. Alaska Fairbanks)
  • Average Annual Precipitation Model 30-year Normal (1970-2000) (1K resolution, WorldClim)
  • Human-made barriers (GOODD v2, Global Dam Watch)
  • Natural barriers (OpenStreetMaps)
  • Stream gauges (CAMELS-CL, CR2)
  • Land cover (10-m resolution, ESRI)

Geoprocessing summary

DEM-derived reach-scale hydrogeomorphic model of stream networks, reclassified with habitat suitability metrics for North American beaver (Castor canadensis), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Model outputs are summarized at sub-basin and basin scales. All geoprocessing was conducted on ArcGIS Pro 2.9 (ESRI, 2022).

Files & fields:

EnvRes_Beaver.gdb (Geodatabase):

1. lines_100m (Polyline):

  • HydroID (integer): Unique identifier for stream reaches
  • Stream_km (float): length of stream reach
  • DrainArea (float): Catchment area in square kilometers
  • CatchPrecip (float): Average annual catchment precipitation in cubic meters
  • MeanFlow (float): Predicted values of average annual flow in cubic meters per second
  • Avg_Slope (float): Stream gradient percent
  • Depth (float): Predicted values of bankfull depth in meters (based on regression by Andreadis et al. 2013 - DOI:10.1002/wrcr.20440)
  • ChanWidth (float): Predicted values of bankfull width in meters (based on regression by Andreadis et al. 2013 - DOI:10.1002/wrcr.20440)
  • VallWidth (float): Modeled valley width in meters
  • Grad_Beaver (float): beaver suitability score for stream gradient
  • CW_Beaver (float): beaver suitability score for channel width
  • VW_Beaver (float): beaver suitability score for valley width
  • HIP_Beaver (float): the geometric mean of suitability scores for beaver

2. sub_basins (Polygon):

  • Basin_ID (integer): Unique identifier for basins draining directly into the ocean
  • SubBasin_ID (integer): Unique identifier for sub-basins
  • Area_sqk (float): Subbasin area in square kilometers
  • Tree_Percent (float): Percent of tree cover
  • Beaver_km (float): Sum of stream reaches length with high suitability for beaver
  • Stream_km (float): Sum of stream reaches length
  • Dam_count (integer): Count of beaver dams within sub-basin (based on Huertas Herrera et al. 2020 - DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0232057)
  • Beaver_HIP_Dens (float): Density of stream reaches with high suitability for beaver (Beaver_Km/ Stream_Km)
  • Stream_HCI (integer): Beaver habitat complementation score for stream habitats
  • Forest_HCI (integer): Beaver habitat complementation score for forest cover
  • HCI_Beaver (integer): Beaver habitat complementation index (composite of stream HCI and forest HCI)
EnvRes_Pacific_salmon.gdb (Geodatabase):

1. lines_100m (Polyline):

  • HydroID (integer): Unique identifier for stream reaches
  • DrainArea (float): Catchment area in square kilometers
  • CatchPrecip (float): Average annual catchment precipitation in cubic meters
  • MeanFlow (float): Predicted values of average annual flow in cubic meters per second
  • Avg_Slope (float): Stream gradient percent
  • Depth (float): Predicted values of bankfull depth in meters (based on regression by Andreadis et al. 2013 - DOI:10.1002/wrcr.20440)
  • ChanWidth (float): Predicted values of bankfull width in meters (based on regression by Andreadis et al. 2013 - DOI:10.1002/wrcr.20440)
  • VallWidth (float): Modeled valley width in meters
  • VWI (float): Valley width index (ratio between valley and channel widths)
  • Lake (binary): Lake reach (1) or lotic reach (Null)
  • Barrier (binary): Downstream presence of a documented barrier to the fish movement(1)
  • MGD_100m (integer): Maximum gradient downstream measured using 100-meter reaches
  • MGD_1K (integer): Maximum gradient downstream measured using 1-K reaches
  • Conn_Coho (float): Connectivity score for coho salmon
  • Flow_Coho_S (float): coho salmon spawning suitability score for flow
  • Grad_Coho_S (float): coho salmon spawning suitability score for stream gradient
  • VWI_Coho_S (float): coho salmon spawning suitability score for VWI
  • HIP_Coho_S (float): the geometric mean of coho salmon spawning scores
  • Flow_Coho_R (float): coho salmon rearing suitability score for flow
  • Grad_Coho_R (float): coho salmon rearing suitability score for stream gradient
  • VWI_Coho_R (float): coho salmon rearing suitability score for VWI
  • HIP_Coho_R (float): the geometric mean of coho salmon rearing scores
  • Conn_Chinook (float): Connectivity score for chinook salmon
  • Width_Chinook_S (float): Chinook salmon spawning suitability score for bankfull width
  • Grad_Chinook_S (float): Chinook salmon spawning suitability score for stream gradient
  • VWI_Chinook_S (float): Chinook salmon spawning suitability score for VWI
  • HIP_Chinook_S (float): the geometric mean of chinook salmon spawning scores
  • Flow_Chinook_R (float): Chinook salmon rearing suitability score for flow
  • Grad_Chinook_R (float): Chinook salmon rearing suitability score for stream gradient
  • VWI_Chinook_R (float): Chinook salmon rearing suitability score for VWI
  • HIP_Chinook_R (float): the geometric mean of chinook salmon rearing scores

2. sub_basins (Polygon):

  • Basin_ID (integer): Unique identifier for basins draining directly into the ocean
  • SubBasin_ID (integer): Unique identifier for sub-basins
  • Area_Sqk (float): Subbasin area in square kilometers
  • Ice_Percent (float): Percent of ice cover
  • Tree_Percent (float): Percent of tree cover
  • Coho_S_Km (float): Sum of stream reaches length with high suitability for coho salmon spawning
  • Coho_R_Km (float): Sum of stream reaches length with high suitability for coho salmon rearing
  • HCI_Coho_S (integer): Habitat complementation score for coho salmon spawning habitats
  • HCI_Coho_R (integer): Habitat complementation score for coho salmon-rearing habitats
  • HCI_Coho (integer): Coho salmon habitat complementation index (composite of HCI_Coho_S and HCI_Coho_R)
  • Chinook_S_Km (float): Sum of stream reaches length with high suitability for Chinook salmon spawning
  • Chinook_R_Km (float): Sum of stream reaches length with high suitability for Chinook salmon rearing
  • HCI_Chinook_S (integer): Habitat complementation score for Chinook salmon spawning habitats
  • HCI_Chinook_R (integer): Habitat complementation score for Chinook salmon rearing habitats
  • HCI_Chinook (integer): Chinook salmon habitat complementation index (composite of HCI_Chinook_S and HCI_Chinook_R)
  • Chinook_access_km (float): Sum of stream reaches length with high access potential for Chinook salmon
  • Coho_access_km (float): Sum of stream reaches length with high access potential for coho salmon
  • Coho_S_Dens (float): Stream density of high potential coho salmon spawning habitats (Coho_S_Km / Coho_access_km)
  • Coho_R_Dens (float): Stream density of high potential coho salmon rearing habitats (Coho_R_Km / Coho_access_km)
  • Chinook_S_Dens (float): Stream density of high potential chinook salmon spawning habitats (Chinook_S_Km / Chinook_access_km)
  • Chinook_R_Dens (float): Stream density of high potential chinook salmon rearing habitats (Chinook_R_Km / Chinook_access_km)
  • None_HCI_Coho_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Coho == 0
  • Low_HCI_Coho_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Coho == 1
  • Medium_HCI_Coho_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Coho == 2
  • High_HCI_Coho_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Coho == 3
  • None_HCI_Chinook_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Chinook = 0
  • Low_HCI_Chinook_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Chinook = 1
  • Medium_HCI_Chinook_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Chinook = 2
  • High_HCI_Chinook_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Chinook = 3
  • Low_ERI_Coho_AreaPercent (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Coho = 3
  • Medium_ERI_Coho_AreaPercent (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Coho = 2
  • High_ERI_Coho_AreaPercent (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Coho = 0 - 1
  • Low_ERI_Chinook_AreaPercent (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Chinook = 3
  • Medium_ERI_Chinook_AreaPercent (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Chinook = 2
  • High_ERI_Chinook_AreaPercent (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Chinook = 0 - 1

3. basins (Polygon):

  • Basin_ID (integer): Unique identifier for basins draining directly into the ocean
  • Area_Sqk (float): Basin area in square kilometers
  • Ice_Percent (float): Percent of ice cover
  • Tree_Percent (float): Percent of tree cover
  • Chinook_access_km (float): Sum of stream reaches length with high access potential for Chinook salmon
  • Coho_access_km (float): Sum of stream reaches length with high access potential for coho salmon
  • Coho_S_Km (float): Sum of stream reaches length with high suitability for coho salmon spawning
  • Coho_R_Km (float): Sum of stream reaches length with high suitability for coho salmon rearing
  • Chinook_S_Km (float): Sum of stream reaches length with high suitability for Chinook salmon spawning
  • Chinook_R_Km (float): Sum of stream reaches length with high suitability for Chinook salmon rearing
  • None_HCI_Coho_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Coho = 0
  • Low_HCI_Coho_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Coho = 1
  • Medium_HCI_Coho_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Coho = 2
  • High_HCI_Coho_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Coho = 3
  • None_HCI_Chinook_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Chinook = 0
  • Low_HCI_Chinook_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Chinook = 1
  • Medium_HCI_Chinook_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Chinook = 2
  • High_HCI_Chinook_Sqk (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Chinook = 3
  • Low_ERI_Coho_AreaPercent (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Coho = 3
  • Medium_ERI_Coho_AreaPercent (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Coho = 2
  • High_ERI_Coho_AreaPercent (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Coho = 0 - 1
  • Low_ERI_Chinook_AreaPercent (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Chinook = 3
  • Medium_ERI_Chinook_AreaPercent (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Chinook = 2
  • High_ERI_Chinook_AreaPercent (float): Total square kilometers of sub-basins HCI_Chinook = 0 - 1
Projected Coordinate System:

South America Albers Equal Area Conic - WKID 102033 (South American Datum 1969)

Sharing/Access information

Disclosure: This dataset was developed solely to map environmental resistance patterns to the invasion of Pacific salmon and North American beaver in South America, and not for thorough assessments of freshwater environments. The use of this dataset is the responsibility of the user, informed about the uncertainty and limitations associated with models based on space-borne remote sensing data. Any questions and inquiries, please write to andres.olivos@oregonstate.edu or ivan.arismendi@oregonstate.edu

Code/Software

Geodatabase files (.GDB) containing output datasets can be opened in most GIS Software (QGIS, ArcGIS, MapInfo, GRASS, etc.). Our personalized geoprocessing toolbox (.TBX) can be used in ArcGIS Pro (2.x), and the code operating each tool can be reviewed in any Python IDE and editor (IDLE, PyCharm, Spyder, etc.).

Funding

Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo

Oregon State University