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Data for: Improving routine childhood immunisation outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: An evidence gap map

Cite this dataset

Engelbert, Mark; Jain, Monica; Bagai, Avantika; Parsekar, Shradha (2022). Data for: Improving routine childhood immunisation outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: An evidence gap map [Dataset]. Dryad.


Objective: To support evidence-informed decision-making, we created an evidence gap map (EGM) to characterise the evidence base on the effectiveness of interventions in improving routine childhood immunisation outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Methods: We developed an intervention-outcome matrix with 38 interventions and 43 outcomes. We searched academic databases and grey literature sources for relevant impact evaluations (IEs) and systematic reviews (SRs). Search results were screened on title/abstract. Those included in the title/abstract were retrieved for a full review. Studies meeting the eligibility criteria were included and data were extracted for each included study. All screening and data extraction was done by two independent reviewers. We analysed these data to identify trends in the geographic distribution of evidence, the concentration of evidence across intervention and outcome categories, and attention to vulnerable populations in the literature.

Results: We identified 309 studies, comprising 226 completed IEs, 58 completed SRs, 24 ongoing IEs, and 1 ongoing SR. Evidence from IEs is heavily concentrated in a handful of countries in Sub- Saharan Africa and South Asia. Among interventions, the most frequently evaluated are those related to education and material incentives for caregivers or health workers. There are gaps in the study of non-material incentives and outreach to vulnerable populations. Among outcomes, those related to vaccine coverage and health are well covered. However, evidence on intermediate outcomes related to health system capacity or barriers faced by caregivers is much more limited.

Conclusions: There is valuable evidence available to decision-makers for use in identifying and deploying effective strategies to increase routine immunisation in LMICs. However, additional research is needed to address gaps in the evidence base.


These data were manually extracted by trained reviewers from published research reports.

Usage notes

This is a spreadsheet that can be opened in Microsoft Excel, Google Sheets, OpenOffice Calc, or LibreOffice Calc.


Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Award: OPP1115129