Data from: Sex-chromosome differentiation and ‘sex races’ in the common frog (Rana temporaria)
Rodrigues, Nicolas; Vuille, Yvan; Loman, Jon; Perrin, Nicolas (2015), Data from: Sex-chromosome differentiation and ‘sex races’ in the common frog (Rana temporaria), Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.4j169
Sex-chromosome differentiation was recently shown to vary among common frog populations in Fennoscandia, suggesting a trend of increased differentiation with latitude. By rearing families from two contrasted populations (respectively, from northern and southern Sweden), we show this disparity to stem from differences in sex-determination mechanisms rather than in XY-recombination patterns. Offspring from the northern population display equal sex ratios at metamorphosis, with phenotypic sexes that correlate strongly with paternal LG2 haplotypes (the sex chromosome); accordingly, Y haplotypes are markedly differentiated, with male-specific alleles and depressed diversity testifying to their smaller effective population size. In the southern population, by contrast, a majority of juveniles present ovaries at metamorphosis; only later in development do sex ratios return to equilibrium. Even at these later stages, phenotypic sexes correlate only mildly with paternal LG2 haplotypes; accordingly, there are no recognizable Y haplotypes. These distinct patterns of gonadal development fit the concept of ‘sex races’ proposed in the 1930s, with our two populations assigned to the ‘differentiated’ and ‘semi-differentiated’ races, respectively. Our results support the suggestion that ‘sex races’ differ in the genetic versus epigenetic components of sex determination. Analysing populations from the ‘undifferentiated race’ with high-density genetic maps should help to further test this hypothesis.