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Data from: Population genetics and independently replicated evolution of predator-associated burst speed ecophenotypy in mosquitofish

Citation

DeWitt, Thomas J; Troendle, Nicholas J; Mateos, Mariana; Mauricio, Rodney (2022), Data from: Population genetics and independently replicated evolution of predator-associated burst speed ecophenotypy in mosquitofish, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.4tmpg4fbk

Abstract

Many species show replicated ecophenotypy due to recurring patterns of natural selection. Based on the presence or absence of pursuit predators, at least 17 species of fish repeatedly differentiated in body shape in a manner that increases burst swimming speed and the likelihood of predator escape. The predator-associated burst speed (PABS) ecophenotype is characterized by a small head and trunk and enlarged caudal region. Mechanisms promoting replicated phenotype-environment association include selection (without evolution), a single instance of adaptive evolution followed by biased habitat occupation, repeated instances of local adaptation, or adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Common garden rearing of mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, demonstrated a likely heritable basis for PABS phenotypy, but it is unknown whether populations are otherwise genetically distinct or whether replicated ecophenotypy represents a single or replicated instances of adaptation. To genetically characterize the populations and test hypotheses of single or multiple adaptations, we characterized variation in 12 polymorphic DNA microsatellites in the previously studied G. affinis populations. Populations were genetically distinct by multilocus analysis, exhibited high allelic diversity, and were heterozygote deficient, which effects were attributed to G. affinis’s shoaling nature and habitat patchiness. Genetic and phenotypic distances among populations were correlated for non-PABS but not PABS morphology. Multilocus analysis demonstrated ecophenotype polyphyly and scattered multivariate genetic structure which support only the replicated-adaptation model. As all of the diverse tests performed demonstrated lack of congruence between patterns of molecular genetic and PABS differentiation, it is likely that divergent natural selection drove multiple instances of adaptive evolution.Many species show replicated ecophenotypy due to recurring patterns of natural selection. Based on the presence or absence of pursuit predators, at least 17 species of fish repeatedly differentiated in body shape in a manner that increases burst swimming speed and the likelihood of predator escape. The predator-associated burst speed (PABS) ecophenotype is characterized by a small head and trunk and enlarged caudal region. Mechanisms promoting replicated phenotype-environment association include selection (without evolution), a single instance of adaptive evolution followed by biased habitat occupation, repeated instances of local adaptation, or adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Common garden rearing of mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, demonstrated a likely heritable basis for PABS phenotypy, but it is unknown whether populations are otherwise genetically distinct or whether replicated ecophenotypy represents a single or replicated instances of adaptation. To genetically characterize the populations and test hypotheses of single or multiple adaptations, we characterized variation in 12 polymorphic DNA microsatellites in the previously studied G. affinis populations. Populations were genetically distinct by multilocus analysis, exhibited high allelic diversity, and were heterozygote deficient, which effects were attributed to G. affinis’s shoaling nature and habitat patchiness. Genetic and phenotypic distances among populations were correlated for non-PABS but not PABS morphology. Multilocus analysis demonstrated ecophenotype polyphyly and scattered multivariate genetic structure which support only the replicated-adaptation model. As all of the diverse tests performed demonstrated lack of congruence between patterns of molecular genetic and PABS differentiation, it is likely that divergent natural selection drove multiple instances of adaptive evolution.

Methods

Data on 12 microsatellite polymorphisms collected on 254 fish from 6 populations as described in manuscript. Missing values (6%) were imputed with maximum likelihood in JMP. Multivariate analysis of molecular variance (MAMOVA) and linear discriminant analyses were conducted in JMP. The MAMOVAs were replicated in this archived Excel file for transparency and illustrative purposes. A dispersion analysis of multivariate least square means (canonical centroids), per DeWitt et al. (2021) was illustrated conceptually and conducted in Excel in this archived file.

Reference: DeWitt TJ, Fuentes JI, Ioerger TR, Bishop MP (2021) Rectifying I: three point and continuous fit of the spatial autocorrelation metric, Moran’s I, to ideal form. Landscape Ecology 36: 2897-2918. doi 10.1007/s10980-021-01256-0

Usage Notes

Eigendecomposition in the course of the MAMOVAs was performed using functions available in the Excel add-in 'Matrix.xla'. Version 2.3 was used. However, hard pasted values for eigenvalues and eigenvectors are also given if users wish to use that instead of the dynamic functions.

Funding

NSF, Award: DEB-0344488