Data from: Widespread hybridization within mound-building wood ants in Southern Finland results in cytonuclear mismatches and potential for sex-specific hybrid breakdown
Beresford, Jack et al. (2017), Data from: Widespread hybridization within mound-building wood ants in Southern Finland results in cytonuclear mismatches and potential for sex-specific hybrid breakdown, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.576hg
Hybridization and gene flow between diverging lineages is increasingly recognized as a common evolutionary process and its consequences can vary from hybrid breakdown to adaptive introgression. We have previously found a population of wood ant hybrids between Formica aquilonia and F. polyctena that shows antagonistic effects of hybridization: females with introgressed alleles show hybrid vigour, whereas males with the same alleles show hybrid breakdown. Here we investigate whether hybridization is a general phenomenon in this species pair, and analyze 647 worker samples from 16 localities in Finland using microsatellite markers and a 1200 bp mitochondrial sequence. Our results show that 27 sampled nests contained parental-like gene pools (six putative F. polyctena and 21 putative F. aquilonia) and all remaining nests (69), from nine localities, contained hybrids of varying degrees. Patterns of genetic variation suggest these hybrids arise from several hybridization events or, instead, have backcrossed to the parental gene pools to varying extents. In contrast to expectations, the mitochondrial haplotypes of the parental species were not randomly distributed among the hybrids. Instead, nests that were closer to parental-like F. aquilonia for nuclear markers preferentially had F. polyctena's mitochondria and vice versa. This systematic pattern suggests there may be underlying selection favoring cytonuclear mismatch and hybridization. We also found a new hybrid locality with strong genetic differences between the sexes similar to those predicted under antagonistic selection on male and female hybrids. Further studies are needed to determine the selective forces that act on male and female genomes in these newly discovered hybrids.