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Data for: The Martian atmospheric waves perturbation Datasets (MAWPD) version 2.0

Citation

Zhang, Jie; Ji, Qianqian; Sheng, Zheng (2022), Data for: The Martian atmospheric waves perturbation Datasets (MAWPD) version 2.0 , Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.59zw3r2bh

Abstract

The Martian atmospheric waves perturbation Datasets (MAWPD) version 2.0 is the first observation-based climatology dataset of Martian atmospheric waves.

It contains climatology-gridded temperature, gravity waves, and tides spanning the whole Martian year. MAWPD uses the Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions method (DINEOF) reconstruction method for data assimilation with the observational data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN), Mars Pathfinder (MP), Mars Phoenix Lander (MPL), Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and Mars Express (MEX) temperature retrievals. The dataset includes gridded fields of temperature (Level 1 data) as well as the physical quantities of GWs (Level 2 data, amplitude, and potential energies), SPWs and tides (Level 2 data, amplitude, and phase).

We found the MAWPD can well reflect the climatological variations of gravity and tidal waves in the Martian atmosphere. The dataset is useful for observation-based scientific studies concerning Martian atmospheric waves, e.g., circulation, dust storms, and the wave excitation mechanism on Mars, and their comparison with the reanalysis dataset.

Methods

The MAWPD is based on the grids established by Martian atmospheric temperature retrievals from instruments on multiple orbiters and landers, while the DINEOF reconstruction method is used to fill in the missing data of grids. The reconstructed grids are then used to calculate all the waves including tides, GWs, and SPWs.

Based on the 3.95 billion grid points of nearly 182.18 million temperature profiles after quality control obtained by spacecraft instruments (MGS/RO, MGS/TES, MRO/MCS, MAVEN/IUVS, MEX/RO, MEX/SPICAM, MP, MPL, MER1, and MER2), the high-resolution temperature grids are reconstructed with DINEOF method as Level 1 data. The grids of Level 2 data, i.e., GWs, SPWs, and tides, are calculated using the Level 1 data. The dataset resolution is 5°(latitude)×10°(longitude) in the horizontal and 100 uniformly distributed layers in the vertical from 1km to 100km with per 5° Ls and 2hr LT temporal resolution. Thus, the grid dimension is  72(Ls) × 12(LT) × 100(altitude) × 36(latitude) × 36(longitude) as shown in table 1.

Usage Notes

The ‘MAWPD_XX.nc’ file contains three kind of variables including ‘dimension variables’, ‘Five dimensional variables’, and ‘Three dimensional variables’ (table 1).

Specifically, dimension variables ‘Solar_Longitude’, ‘Local_Time’,’ Altitude’, ‘Latitude’, and ‘Longitude’ are five dimensions called Ls, Lt, Altitude, Latitude, Longitude, respectively.

Five dimensional variables ‘Temperature’, ‘Temperature_sd’, ‘Temperature_I’, ‘Temperature_D’, ‘GW’, and ‘E’ are the air temperature (K), standard deviation of temperature (K), instrument number, data point number, gravity wave amplitude normalized by background temperature (%), and potential energy of gravity wave (J*kg-1) in the entire covered spatio-temporal domain, respectively. They are storage in ‘MAWPD_v2.0_T.nc’, ‘MAWPD_v2.0_T_sd.nc’, ‘MAWPD_v2.0_T_I.nc’, ‘MAWPD_v2.0_T_D.nc’, ‘MAWPD_v2.0_GW_NA.nc’, and ‘MAWPD_v2.0_GW_PE.nc’, respectively.

Five-dimensional variable ‘Temperature’ represents the climatology atmospheric state in the entire domain completely and sustain the calculation for ‘GW’, and ‘E’. The super observation standard deviation ‘Temperature_sd’ of air temperature in the grid is a proxy of observation error, while the number of instruments contributing data to the grid ‘Temperature_I’ and number of data points in the grid ‘Temperature_D’ tell users how heavily it is constrained by data. Five-dimensional variable ‘GW’, and ‘E’ represents the climatology gravity waves in the entire domain.

Three dimensional variables ‘amp_T_XXX’ and ‘phs_T_XXX’ are the daily and zonally mean amplitude and phase of the specific tidal wave. For example, ‘amp_T_DW1’ and ‘phs_T_DW1’ are the daily and zonally amplitude and phase of the migrating diurnal tide (DW1). Three-dimensional variables are calculated by the Five-dimensional variable ‘Temperature’. They lost two dimensions (Lt and Longitude) due to the tidal calculation described in the equation (4) above and represents the climatology zonal and daily mean tides in different Ls, Altitude, and latitude. They are all storaged in ‘MAWPD_v2.0_tide.nc’.

The Tides in the NetCDF file include the amplitude and phase of wave number 1 to 5 westward propagating migrating diurnal tide (DW1 to DW5), wave number 1 to 5 eastward propagating migrating diurnal tide (DE1 to DE5), wave number 1 to 5 westward propagating migrating semidiurnal tide (SW1 to SW5), wave number 1 to 5 eastward propagating migrating semidiurnal tide (SE1 to SE5), diurnal and semi-diurnal zonally symmetric tide (DS0, SS0). While the SPWs products include the amplitude and phase of wave number 1 to 5 stationary planetary waves. In addition, the amplitude and phase of zonal mean temperature are calculated for reference. The GWs perturbation and potential energy representing the intensity of GWs activity are also stored as Level 2 data in the dataset.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China, Award: 41875045

Hunan Outstanding Youth Fund Project, Award: 2021JJ10048

The “Western Light’’ Cross-Team Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory Cooperative Research Project