Data from: Phenotypic plasticity in the mandibular morphology of Japanese macaques: captive–wild comparison
Kamaluddin, Siti Norsyuhada et al. (2019), Data from: Phenotypic plasticity in the mandibular morphology of Japanese macaques: captive–wild comparison, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.768vg4f
Despite the accumulating evidence suggesting the importance of phenotypic plasticity in diversification and adaptation, little is known about plastic variation in primate skulls. The present study evaluated the plastic variation of the mandible in Japanese macaques by comparing wild and captive specimens. The results showed that captive individuals are square-jawed with relatively longer tooth rows than wild individuals. We also found that this shape change resembles the sexual dimorphism, indicating that the mandibles of captive individuals are to some extent masculinized. In contrast, the mandible morphology was not clearly explained by ecogeographical factors. These findings suggest the possibility that perturbations in the social environment in captivity and resulting changes of androgenic hormones may have influenced the development of mandible shape. As the high plasticity of social properties is well known in wild primates, social environment may cause the inter- and intra-population diversity of skull morphology, even in the wild. The captive–wild morphological difference detected in this study, however, can also be possibly formed by other untested sources of variation (e.g., inter-population genetic variation), and therefore this hypothesis should be validated further.