Skip to main content

Predation release of Texas horned lizards (Phrynosoma cornutum) living in small towns

Cite this dataset

Mirkin, Stephen; Tucker, Mary; Williams, Dean A. (2022). Predation release of Texas horned lizards (Phrynosoma cornutum) living in small towns [Dataset]. Dryad.


Texas horned lizards (Phrynosoma cornutum) have a number of ways to avoid predation, including camouflage, sharp cranial horns, flattening of the body, and the ability to squirt blood from the eyes. These characteristics and their relatively low survival rates in the wild suggests these lizards are under high predation pressure. These lizards have been declining in much of their eastern range due to increased urbanization, agriculture, and loss of prey species. However, they can be still be found in some small south Texas towns where they can reach densities that are much higher (~50 lizards/ha) than in natural areas (~4-10 lizards/ha). We hypothesized that one reason for the high densities observed in these towns may be due to reduced predation pressure. We used model Texas horned lizards to test whether predation levels were lower in two south Texas towns than on a nearby ranch. We constructed models from urethane foam, a material that is ideal for preserving marks left behind by predators. Models (n = 126) and control pieces of foam (n = 21) were left in the field for 9 days in each location in early and late summer and subsequent predation marks were categorized by predator taxa. We observed significantly more predation attempts on the models than on controls and significantly fewer attempts in town (n = 1) compared to the ranch (n = 60). On the ranch, avian predation attempts appear to be common especially when the models did not match the color of the soil. Our results suggest that human modified environments that have suitable habitat and food resources may provide a refuge for some prey species like horned lizards from predators.


Data was collected in the field during the Summer of 2018. Raw data has been entered into Excel and analyzed using chi-square, fisher's exact, and t-tests where appropriate.

Usage notes

Predation counts from the predation experiment can be found in the first two sheets of the excel file (Urban Sites, Ranch).  These predation counts are then separated in to predation categories and can be found in the sheet entitled (Predation Categories).  Color matching data in the form of Color Overlapping Index (COI) scores can be found in the sheet entitled (COI).