Data from: The significance of prey avoidance behaviour for the maintenance of a predator colour polymorphism
Ajuria Ibarra, Helena et al. (2018), Data from: The significance of prey avoidance behaviour for the maintenance of a predator colour polymorphism, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.792r3k1
The existence of conspicuous colour polymorphisms in animals provides an ideal opportunity to examine the mechanisms which determine genetic and phenotypic variation in populations. It is well known that directional and negative frequency-dependent selection by predators can influence the persistence of colour polymorphisms in their prey, but much less attention has been paid to the idea that prey behaviour could generate selection on predator colour morphs. In this study, we examine the role that avoidance behaviour by honeybees might play in selection on a colour-polymorphic sit-and-wait predator, the crab spider Synema globosum. In two field experiments, we offered flowers harbouring spiders of different colour morphs to foraging honeybees. In the first, we tested for a pre-existing propensity in honeybees to avoid one spider morph over another, and whether this behaviour is influenced by the flower species on which spiders hunt. In the second, we tested the ability of bees to learn to avoid spider morphs associated with a previous simulated attack. Our results suggest that honeybees do not impose strong directional selection on spider morphs in our study population, and that avoidance behaviour is not influenced by flower species. However, we find evidence that honeybees learn to avoid spiders of a colour morph that has previously been associated with a simulated attack. These findings are the first empirical evidence for a mechanism by which prey behaviour might generate negative frequency-dependent selection on predator colour morphs, and hence potentially influence the long-term persistence of genetic and phenotypic diversity in predator populations.