Data from: Rapid sex-specific evolution of age at maturity is shaped by genetic architecture in Atlantic salmon
Cite this dataset
Czorlich, Yann et al. (2019). Data from: Rapid sex-specific evolution of age at maturity is shaped by genetic architecture in Atlantic salmon [Dataset]. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.7hm4708
Understanding the mechanisms by which populations adapt to their environments is a fundamental aim in biology. However, it remains challenging to identify the genetic basis of traits, provide evidence of genetic changes and quantify phenotypic responses. Age at maturity in Atlantic salmon represents an ideal trait to study contemporary adaptive evolution as it has been associated with a single locus in the vgll3 region, and has also strongly changed in recent decades. Here, we provide an empirical example of contemporary adaptive evolution of a large effect locus driving contrasting sex-specific evolutionary responses at the phenotypic level. We identified an 18% decrease in the vgll3 allele associated with late maturity (L) in a large and diverse salmon population over 36 years, induced by sex-specific selection during the sea migration. Those genetic changes resulted in a significant evolutionary response in males only, due to sex-specific dominance patterns and vgll3 allelic effects. The vgll3 allelic and dominance effects differed greatly in a second population and were likely to generate different selection and evolutionary patterns. Our study highlights the importance of knowledge of genetic architecture to better understand fitness trait evolution and phenotypic diversity. It also emphasizes the potential role of adaptive evolution in the trend toward earlier maturation observed in numerous Atlantic salmon populations worldwide.