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Dryad

Patterns of morphological variation highlight the effect of natural selection on eyespots modularity in the butterfly Morpho telemachus - Dataset

Cite this dataset

Chotard, Ariane (2023). Patterns of morphological variation highlight the effect of natural selection on eyespots modularity in the butterfly Morpho telemachus - Dataset [Dataset]. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.7m0cfxpzm

Abstract

Morphological correlations can stem from developmental constraints but also from selective pressures. Butterfly eyespots are repeated wing color pattern elements, widespread across species. As developmental serial homologues, they are controlled by similar developmental pathways imposing correlations among eyespots: selection on a single eyespot may induce correlated responses in all eyespots. We study the variations in the ventral eyespots of Morpho telemachus, where two different selective regimes are likely to act: while most eyespots are always-visible, two eyespots are conditionally-displayed: hidden at rest, they can be exposed when the butterflies are threatened, or during sexual interactions. We investigate how such contrasted selection across eyespots can alter the covariations imposed by their shared developmental origin. We quantified eyespots' co-variations within a large population of M. telemachus and compared the observed patterns to those found in M. helenor, where all eyespots are always-visible and thus probably affected by a similar selection regime. We found that M. telemachus conditionally-displayed eyespots are less variable than always-visible eyespots and that these two eyespots form a separate variational module in this species, in contrast to M. helenor. Our results suggest that eyespots' covariations were shaped by selection, highlighting how natural selection may promote the evolution of modularity.

Methods

These files contain data used in the three sections of Materials & Methods, in order:

Estimating eyespot conspicuousness_ reflectance spectrum: 

 

1) helenor spectra

- Reflectance spectra (.RFL8 files) from (n=10) M. helenor, Yellow ring + Black ring

- "Spectra IDH.csv" = referende files for helenor spectra, indicating the butterfly ID, the eyespot ID and the side of each reflectance spectra. 

Example "PBM_0664_O1L" = spectrum measured on the butterfly "PBM_0664", on the eyespot "O1" on the Left side. 

 

2) telemachus spectra

- Reflectance spectrum (.RFL8 files) from (n=10) M. telemachus, Yellow ring + Black ring

- "Spectra IDT.csv" = reference files, indicating the butterfly ID, the eyespot ID and the side of each reflectance spectra. 

3) "spectra_code.R" = R code for spectra (.RFL8) analysis

 

Photos_butterflies:

1) Photo_telemachus : 740 photos (dorsal and ventral side, noted "d" and "v" respectively) of the 370 sampled males Morpho telemachus from a single emergence bloom collected in 1995 in Bolivia, in the province of Chapare (Department of Cochabamba CBBA; Gilbert Lachaume, pers. com.).

2) Photo_helenor : 62 photos (dorsal and ventral side, noted "d" and "v" respectively) of the 31 males Morpho helenor from MNHN's collections + reference file "ID_helenor" indicating the sub-species and localities of catching of all helenor individuals.