Data from: Population genomics of divergence within an obligate pollination mutualism: selection maintains differences between Joshua tree species
Royer, Anne M.; Streisfeld, Matthew A.; Smith, Christopher Irwin (2017), Data from: Population genomics of divergence within an obligate pollination mutualism: selection maintains differences between Joshua tree species, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.7pj4t
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Speciation is a complex process that can be shaped by many factors, from geographic isolation to interspecific interactions. In Joshua trees, selection from pollinators on style length has been hypothesized to contribute to the maintenance of differentiation between two hybridizing sister species. We used population genomics approaches to measure the extent of genetic differentiation between these species, test whether selection maintains differences between them, and determine whether genetic variants associated with style length show signatures of selection.
METHODS: Using restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD)-sequencing, we identified 9516 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the Joshua tree genome. We characterized the genomic composition of trees in a narrow hybrid zone and used genomic scans to search for signatures of selection acting on these SNPs. We used a genome-wide association study to identify SNPs associated with variation in phenotypic traits, including style length, and asked whether those SNPs were overrepresented among the group under selection.
KEY RESULTS: The two species were highly genetically differentiated (FST = 0.25), and hybrids were relatively rare in the hybrid zone. Approximately 20% of SNPs showed evidence of selection maintaining divergence. While SNPs associated with style length were overrepresented among those under selection (P << 0.0001), the same was true for SNPs associated with highly differentiated vegetative traits.
CONCLUSIONS: The two species of Joshua tree are clearly genetically distinct, and selection is maintaining differences between them. We found that loci associated with differentiated traits were likely to be under selection. However, many traits other than style length appeared to be under selection. Together with the dearth of intermediate hybrids, these findings reveal that these taxa are more strongly diverged than previously suspected and that selection, likely on many targets, is maintaining separation where the two species meet and hybridize.