Genome-wide SNP analysis of male and female rice field frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus, supports a non-genetic sex determination system
Panthum, Thitipong et al. (2021), Genome-wide SNP analysis of male and female rice field frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus, supports a non-genetic sex determination system, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.7pvmcvdsv
Sex determination systems (SDSs) in anurans are diverse and have undergone independent evolutionary transitions among species. The mode of sexual reproduction of the rice field frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus), an economically viable edible amphibian species, is not well known. Previous studies have proposed that threshold temperature conditions may determine sex in these frogs. To elucidate the SDS in H. rugulosus, we karyotyped 10 male and 12 female frogs, and performed fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with sequencing analyses using DArTseq™. Our results revealed a highly conserved karyotype with no sex chromosome heteromorphism, and the sequencing analyses did not identify any consistent sex-linked loci, supporting the hypothesis of temperature-dependent sex determination. The results of this study, and others, on SDSs in the rice field frog and related species also provides support for the theory that heteromorphic sex chromosomes may lead to an evolutionary trap that prevents variable SDSs. These findings add important information to the body of knowledge on H. rugulosus and are likely to have a significant impact on the productivity and economic success of rice field frog farming.