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Evaluating the boundaries of marine biogeographic regions of the Southwestern Atlantic using halacarid mites (Halacaridae), meiobenthic organisms with a low dispersal potential

Citation

Pepato, Almir; Klimov, Pavel; Vidigal, Teofânia (2020), Evaluating the boundaries of marine biogeographic regions of the Southwestern Atlantic using halacarid mites (Halacaridae), meiobenthic organisms with a low dispersal potential, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.80gb5mkn2

Abstract

Aim

We evaluated traditional biogeographic boundaries of coastal marine regions in SW Atlantic using DNA sequence data from common, rocky-shore inhabiting, marine mites of the genera Agauopsis and Rhombognathus, family Halacaridae.

Methods

We investigated geographic population genetic structure using CO1 gene sequences, estimated divergence times using a multigene dataset and absolute time-calibrated molecular clock analyses, and performed environmental niche modeling (ENM) of common marine mite species.

Results

Agauopsis legionium has a shallow history (2.01 Ma) with four geographically differentiated groups. Two of them corresponded to the traditional Amazonian and Northeastern ecoregions, but the boundary between the two other groups was inferred at the Abrolhos Plateau, not Cabo Frio. Rhombognathus levigatoides s. lat. was represented by two cryptic species that diverged 7.22 (multilocus data) or 10.01 Ma (CO1-only analyses), with their boundary, again at the Abrolhos Plateau. ENM showed that A. legionium has suitable habitats scattered along the coast, while the two R. levigatoides cryptic species differ considerably in their niches, especially in parameters related to upwelling. This indicates that genetic isolation associated with the Abrolhos Plateau occurred in both lineages, but for the R. levigatoides species complex, ecological niche specialization was also an important factor.

Main conclusions

Our study suggests that the major biogeographic boundary in the Southwestern Atlantic lies not at Cabo Frio but at the Abrolhos Plateau. There, two biogeographically relevant factors meet: (i) changes in current directions (which limit dispersal) and (ii) abrupt changes in environmental parameters associated with the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) upwelling (offering distinct ecological niches). We suggest that our result represents a general biogeographic pattern because a barrier at the Abrolhos Plateau was found previously for the fish genus Macrodon (phylogeographic data), prosobranch mollusks, ascidians, and reef fishes (community-level data).

Methods

In this, we include the sampling data, with population and samples characterization, details on sampling, sequencing and genetic diversity statistics; the R scripts dealing with all steps of species distribution modelling, including figures illustrating some of the results reported in the main text; and the environmental layers employed in such analyses. 

 

Funding

Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) Ciência sem Fronteiras, Award: PVE 88881.064989/2014-01

Russian Science Foundation, Award: 19-14-00004