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Data from: Lizards on ice: evidence for multiple refugia in Liolaemus pictus (Liolaemidae) during the Last Glacial Maximum in the southern Andean beech forests

Citation

Vera-Escalona, Iván et al. (2012), Data from: Lizards on ice: evidence for multiple refugia in Liolaemus pictus (Liolaemidae) during the Last Glacial Maximum in the southern Andean beech forests, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.853t3

Abstract

Historical climate changes and orogenesis are two important factors that have shaped intraspecific biodiversity patterns worldwide. Although southern South America has experienced such complex events, there is a paucity of studies examining the effects on intraspecific diversification in this part of the world. Liolaemus pictus is the southernmost distributed lizard in the Chilean temperate forest, whose genetic structure has likely been influenced by Pleistocene glaciations. We conducted a phylogeographic study of L. pictus in Chile and Argentina based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, and recovered two strongly divergent groups, Northern and Southern clades, the former distributed from the northernmost limit of the species to the Araucanía region, and the latter being distributed throughout the Andes and the Chiloé archipelago in Southern Chile. Our results suggest that L. pictus originated 751 Kya, with divergence between the two clades occurring in the late Pleistocene. Demographic reconstructions for the Northern and Southern clades indicate a decrease in effective population sizes likely associated with Pleistocene glaciations. Surprisingly, patterns of genetic variation, clades ages and historical gene flow in populations distributed within the limits of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are not explained by recent colonization. We propose an “intra-Andean multiple refuge” hypothesis, along with the classical refuge hypothesis previously proposed for the biota of the Chilean Coastal range and Eastern Andean Cordillera. Our hypothesis is supported by niche modeling analysis suggesting the persistence of fragments of suitable habitat for the species within the limits of the LGM ice shield. This type of refuge hypothesis is proposed for the first time for an ectothermic species.

Usage Notes

Location

Chiloe Island
Central Chile
Southern Chile