Skip to main content
Dryad logo

Data from: A rapidly evolved shift in life history timing during ecological speciation is driven by the transition between developmental phases

Citation

Powell, Thomas et al. (2020), Data from: A rapidly evolved shift in life history timing during ecological speciation is driven by the transition between developmental phases, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.8cz8w9gmq

Abstract

For insect species in temperate environments, seasonal timing is often governed by the regulation of diapause, a complex developmental program that allows insects to weather unfavorable conditions and synchronize their lifecycles with available resources. Diapause development consists of a series of distinct phases including initiation, maintenance, termination, and post-diapause development. The evolution of insect seasonal timing depends in part on how these phases of diapause development and post-diapause development interact to affect variation in phenology. Here, we dissect the physiological basis of a recently evolved phenological shift in Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae), a model system for ecological divergence. A recently derived population of R. pomonella shifted from specializing on native hawthorn fruit to earlier fruiting introduced apples, resulting in a 3-4 week shift in adult emergence timing. We tracked metabolic rates of individual flies across post-winter development to test which phases of development may act either independently or in combination to contribute to this recently evolved divergence in timing. Apple and hawthorn flies differed in a number of facets of their post-winter developmental trajectories. However, divergent adaptation in adult emergence phenology in these flies was due almost entirely to the end of the pupal diapause maintenance phase, with post-diapause development having a very small effect. The relatively simple underpinnings of variation in adult emergence phenology suggest that further adaptation to seasonal change in these flies for this trait might be largely due to the timing of diapause termination unhindered by strong covariance among different components of post-diapause development.

Methods

Respirometry data

Data are trajectories of mass adjusted post-winter metabolic rates for Rhagoeltis pomonella flies representing two symaptric host races (apple and hawthorn) collected in Urbana, Illinois, USA measured via stop-flow respirometry. Values in columns labelled "R_dayX" are the metabolic rates (VCO2)  measured for day X in mlCO2/hr/mg.  Eclosion time represents the time in days after removal from simulated winter conditions that the adult fly emerged from its puparium. In Experiment 1, flies were measured after removal from simulated winter conditions every 48 hours until adult emergence. In Experiment 2, flies were first measured in cold, simulated winter conditions and then every 24 hours for 12 days and subsequently monitored for adult emergence.  For a detailed description of the respriromety methods and rearing conditions, please refer to the associated research article in the Journal of Evolutionary Biology.

Usage Notes

Missing values (typically due to respirometry errors) are designated as "NA." Measurements for time points after adult emergence for each fly are also designated as "NA" for machine readability.

Funding

National Science Foundation, Award: IOS 1707773

National Science Foundation, Award: DEB 1638997

National Science Foundation, Award: DEB 1638951

National Science Foundation, Award: DEB 1639005

National Science Foundation, Award: IOS 1257298

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency, Award: CRP Dormancy Mangement to Enable Mass-rearing

Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency, Award: CRP Dormancy Mangement to Enable Mass-rearing