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Data from: Habitat fragmentation differentially shapes neutral and immune gene variation in a tropical bird species

Citation

Perrin, Antoine et al. (2020), Data from: Habitat fragmentation differentially shapes neutral and immune gene variation in a tropical bird species, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.8gtht76kk

Abstract

Habitat fragmentation is a major cause of biodiversity loss, responsible for an alteration of intraspecific patterns of neutral genetic diversity and structure. Although neutral genetic variation can be informative for demographic inferences, it may be a poor predictor of adaptive genetic diversity and thus of the consequences of habitat fragmentation on selective evolutionary processes. In this context, we contrasted patterns of genetic diversity and structure of neutral loci (microsatellites) and immune genes (i.e., toll-like receptors) in an understorey bird species, the wedge-billed woodcreeper Glyphorynchus spirurus. The objectives were (1) to investigate forest fragmentation effects on population genetic diversity, (2) to disentangle the relative role of demography (genetic drift and migration) and selection, and (3) to assess whether immunogenetic patterns could be associated with variation of ectoparasite (i.e., ticks) pressures. Our results revealed an erosion of neutral genetic diversity and a substantial genetic differentiation among fragmented populations, resulting from a decrease in landscape connectivity and leading to the divergence of distinct genetic pools at a small spatial scale. Patterns of genetic diversity observed for TLR4 and TLR5 were concordant with neutral genetic patterns, whereas those observed for TLR3 and TLR21 were discordant. This result underlines that the dominant evolutionary force shaping immunogenetic diversity (genetic drift vs. selection) may be different depending on loci considered. Finally, tick prevalence was higher in fragmented environments. We discussed the hypothesis that pathogen selective pressures may contribute to maintain adaptive genetic diversity despite the negative demographic effect of habitat fragmentation on neutral genetic diversity.